Disinformation and DID: the Politics of Memory
Brian Moss, MA, MFT
This essay is not meant to be comprehensive. Instead it is the attempt to connect some dots that are rarely considered or discussed – hopefully providing a new way to view the politics of memory and of DID in particular. It is designed to generate discussion and suggest areas of further study. There is an old saying: “Don’t bite my finger – look where I am pointing.”
Ability to discern disinformation
Quality disinformation must contain a high degree of truth or it will be rejected outright. The real value of disinformation is to present pieces of the truth in a way that leads to the wrong conclusions. A secondary purpose being obfuscation in general. There is an overwhelming amount of disinformation on the internet and in our media. Who would have guessed that when Orwell’s “Ministry of Truth” finally arrived, we would embrace it as “Wikipedia.”
If I don’t know I don’t know – I think I know
If I don’t know I know – I think I don’t know1
Sometimes propaganda is nothing more than the big lie. Here is an example as it relates to the environmental issue of fracking. (Hydraulic fracturing is the process of drilling and injecting a mix of water and toxic chemicals into the ground under high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks and release natural gas.) This example involves watching movies and reading an article exposing how public consensus is manipulated. It is very informative, and an excellent and entertaining example of the process known in public relations as the manufacturing of consent:
2) This is followed by an industry sponsored “documentary” Truthland4 where the website, movie, and social media campaign were entirely orchestrated by the natural gas industry while pretending to document the concerns of Shelly dePue, “a Susquehanna County mom, dairy farmer and teacher.”
3) Finally comes more authentic investigative journalism which, as is so often the case, comes from a concerned individual filling in for a mainstream media missing in action.5 It turns out that our narrator, “the Susquehanna County mom, dairy farmer and teacher,” though busy reassuring other land owners, had leaking fracking wells contaminating her own property. She traveled around the state promoting corporate interests and misleading small farmers and landowners.
The False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF)
In March of 1992 the False Memory Syndrome Foundation was formed claiming to have discovered a new syndrome. “Syndrome” is a clinical term that requires certain agreed upon signs and symptoms indicative of a disorder. The FMSF definition of “false memory” does not meet these criteria:
Despite the fact that “False Memory Syndrome” remained undefined and had never been the subject of any research, the FMSF focused its early activities on influencing the media and legal system…The definition of “False Memory Syndrome” did not evolve from clinical studies; rather the purported syndrome’s description is based on the accounts of parents claiming to be falsely accused of child sexual abuse, usually by their adult daughters.6
Many researchers and clinicians were concerned at this false aura of authority given to an advocacy organization with a transparent agenda.7 As a response, seventeen researchers coauthored a statement in the American Psychological Society Observer saying as much, declaring that the term “false memory syndrome” was “a non-psychological term originated by a private foundation whose stated purpose is to support accused parents.”8
But the foundation was a great deal more than that. Pamela Freyd, the Executive Director and founder of the FMSF, functioned much as Shelly dePue, the “Susquehanna County mom, dairy farmer and teacher” did in our example above. Martin Orne, M.D., Ph.D., and Harold Lief, M.D., were responsible for gathering the respectable appearing advisory board that allowed the foundation to claim it was a scientific organization – and they were the true force behind it.9 We know that Martin Orne had good reason to be – he was deeply involved with mind-control research10 at the University of Pennsylvania and many of the survivors coming forward were remembering things that they were never supposed to remember. Better that their memories were false.
One such survivor, Claudia Mullen, R.N., gave testimony to the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments on government sponsored mind control and ritual abuse:
Claudia S. Mullen, R.N., March 15, 1995:11
Twice I overheard conversations concerning a place or part of the agency called ORD12 [Office of Research and Development] run by Dr. L. Wilson Greene, Dr. Stephen Aldrich, Dr. Martin Orne and Morse Allen. Once a crude remark was made by Dr. Gottlieb about a possible leak over in New Orleans East, involving a large group of retarded children who were being given massive doses of radiation. [This aspect of Mullen’s testimony would be corroborated 4 years later in Welsome’s book, The Plutonium Files: America’s Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War.13] He asked, why Wilson was “so worried about a few retarded kids? After all, they would be the least likely kids to spill the beans!”
The second time I heard Dr. Martin Orne, who was the “Director of the Scientific Office” – later changed to Institute for Experimental Research in order to keep more funding coming from different sources for the radiation and mind control experiments. Dr. Orne suggested, “Stepping up the amounts of all the stressors used on the subjects, such as chemical, biologicals, increasing the volts and length of the electric shock treatments, hypnosis14 and sexual humiliation” – the blackmail portion of the projects. He stated, “It needed to be done faster, then get rid of the subjects, as it was asking for “us” to come back and haunt them, by remembering.” Dr. Heath at first refused but more of the doctors agreed; although some seemed sincerely horrified at what they either witnessed or heard about.
Dr. Orne demanded that “Executive Action15 be taken. When one of my “splits”, as they referred to my dissociated personalities, asked him (Dr. Orne) what “Executive Action meant?” he replied, “It means we get rid of the little bitch – you! Don’t you get it? You simply disappear, John (Dulles) can order that at any time; and even Mac (John McCone) would never know what happened to you!”
The FMSF was a well organized disinformation campaign with ready access to media. As to the well established academic research18 on memory, and the majority of clinicians with real working knowledge of traumatic memory – a veiling silence prevailed; these voices did not appear to have the same access to media sources. The fierce debate regarding traumatic memory was not taking place in therapists offices or even in the scientific community generally; the debate did manage to enter a few courtrooms but for the most part played out entirely in the media as one would expect from a PR campaign.
A study published last year  by a University of Michigan sociologist, Katherine Beckett, found a sharp shift in how four leading magazines – Time, Newsweek, U.S. News & World Report, and People – treated sexual abuse. In 1991, more than 80 percent of the coverage was weighted toward stories of survivors, with recovered memory taken for granted and questionable therapy virtually ignored. By 1994, more than 80 percent of the coverage focused on false accusations, often involving supposedly false memory. Beckett credited the False Memory Syndrome Foundation with a major role in the change.19
This is not to say that all members were aware of the deeper purpose; many clinicians and researchers advocating for the FMSF agenda had no experience working with DID, ritual abuse, or mind-control and no doubt found the material too upsetting or difficult to believe. Throw in the “alien-abduction” talking point [discussed later] and it became almost a matter of professional self-respect to side with the Foundation on issues of memory.
By far the largest category of membership in FMSF were families that had been accused of sexual abuse by their adult children.
The incest and sexual abuse of children in our society, though hidden, is immense and beyond comprehension. These experiences are quantified in what many trauma therapists consider to be the definitive work on the subject:
If our findings are indicative of the prevalence of child sexual abuse…it means that approximately one in six women are incestuously abused before the age of eighteen and one in approximately eight are so abused before the age of fourteen. It means in addition that over one-quarter of the population of female children have experienced sexual abuse before the age of fourteen, and well over one-third have had such an experience by the age of eighteen years. It is imperative that a problem of this magnitude in the United States be addressed.20
Judith Herman, M.D., also addressed the prevalence of sexual abuse in our society. Her book: Trauma and Recovery: The aftermath of violence – from domestic abuse to political terror was published within a month (April 1992) of the founding of the FMSF. It is a classic in the field, much loved by therapists and survivors alike – and one of the books most viciously attacked by the FMSF. Understandably so, for Herman begins her introduction with, “The ordinary response to atrocities is to banish them from consciousness…” Not exactly in alignment with the talking points of the FMSF.
Chapter six refers to the legacy of child abuse as a public health issue :
The mental health system is filled with survivors of prolonged, repeated childhood trauma. This is true even though most people who have been abused in childhood never come to psychiatric attention. To the extent that these people recover, they do so on their own.21 While only a small minority of survivors, usually those with the most severe abuse histories, eventually become psychiatric patients, many or even most psychiatric patients are survivors of childhood abuse.22 The data on this point are beyond contention. On careful questioning, 50-60 percent of psychiatric inpatients and 40-60 percent of outpatients report childhood histories of physical or sexual abuse or both.23 In one study of psychiatric emergency room patients, 70 percent had abuse histories.24 Thus abuse in childhood appears to be one of the main factors that lead a person to seek psychiatric treatment as an adult.25
Someone must be responsible for this level of sexual trauma within society and yet I know of no efforts by the FMSF to hold anyone accountable for this largely hidden epidemic of child sexual abuse – and in contradiction to the statistics above, I do not remember a time when the FMSF ever acknowledged that there is a significant problem to be addressed. Here is an exchange from an early interview…26 with the figurehead of the foundation, Pamela Freyd:
Treating Abuse Today: …But let me go back to something that I alluded to before, if I may. It seems that the position of the FMSF is that we should be very careful to determine the objective, forensic truth of allegations our patients make, whether in or out of the forensic field. Yet, it also seems that the Foundation is saying that it doesn’t need to do this with it’s own membership. I was very alarmed and concerned about something you wrote in one of the Foundation newsletters about the question of whether you are representing pedophiles.
Freyd: That was one of the very first…
TAT: I’m sure you regret it. I want to remind you of what you wrote in that article [“How Do We Know We are Not Representing Pedophiles?”, February 29, 1992, FMS Foundation Newsletter.] This is an important question.
Freyd: It’s a tremendous question, and I would like to think that we’ve carried it further since then.
TAT: I would like to know how you’ve done that, because what you said in your article was disturbing. You talked about the issue in terms of its importance to your image and the ability of the Foundation to get things done. There was less indication that it would be a terrible fact if true.
Freyd: It would be horrible if that’s what we’re doing. We have stated – I don’t know how many times – that there is no way we can know the truth or the falsity of events to which we’re not a party. I don’t know how therapists know that either.
TAT: But if that is true we must also accept the premise that without outside corroboration, it is just as impossible to prove that a memory is false. You are saying that there’s a false memory epidemic across the country that is tearing families apart, but you really don’t know for sure if the memories involved are, in fact, false. The way you wrote about the possibility the Foundation is representing pedophiles really disturbed me. You wrote, “The first way of addressing this issue has to do with who we are. We are a good-looking bunch of people, graying hair, well dressed, healthy, smiling; just about every person who has attended is someone you would surely find interesting and want to count as a friend.” That wouldn’t rule out Ted Bundy, Pamela. That’s not scientific!
This demographic – aggrieved parents denying their children’s allegations of abuse – became the voice of the foundation and it was behind this demographic, that the likes of Martin Orne and, no doubt, Ewen Cameron if he was still living, would take cover – even if it meant overturning a century of clinical research as to how traumatic memory worked.
Alfred McCoy, a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin – Madison, documents the hidden history of psychology . Writing under the chapter heading, “Science in Dachau’s Shadow:”
Psychology’s service to U.S. national security has produced a variant of what the psychiatrist Robert Lifton has called, in his study of Nazi doctors, a “Faustian bargain.” In this case, the price paid has been the American Psychological Association’s collective silence, ethical “numbing,” and, over time, historical amnesia.27 Indeed, Lifton emphasizes that “the Nazis were not the only ones to involve doctors in evil”; in defense of this argument, he cites the Cold War “role of …American physicians and psychologists employed by the Central Intelligence Agency…for unethical medical and psychological experiments involving drugs and mind manipulation.”28
Lifton, who is often cited on the atrocities of the Nazi doctors, should be very familiar with “Faustian bargains” – he was a cofounder of the Human Ecology Fund, the CIA contractor that showered both Martin Orne and Ewen Cameron (psychic-driving studies) with research grants in the 1960s.29 Originally formed in 1955 as the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, it changed its name in 1961 to the Human Ecology Fund and was a CIA controlled funding mechanism for studies and experiments (often illegal and unethical) in the behavioral sciences.30 Lifton was also a project leader for early mind-control research for the Air Force.31
This is the real back-story to the founding of the FMSF. Perhaps the greatest hypocrisy was the stance the Foundation took regarding Multiple Personality (MPD) – now known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) – that it does not exist. Yet many members of the founding advisory board knew better because the goal (successfully achieved) of the covert research was to do just that. There was truth in one of their talking points though: that Multiple Personality is created by doctors. They just never said which ones.
Two of the many lines of covert research involved psychic-driving and sensory deprivation:
I have never worked with a mind-control survivor that was not subjected to repeated psychic-driving. This procedure is based on two concepts: the breaking down of personality, originally referred to as depatterning32, combined with the introduction of new ideas or beliefs – psychic driving. Depatterning is an assault on the personality using any combination of electric shocks; drug states; sensory deprivation; and sleep deprivation. The stated purpose for the original research in this area was for the purpose of interrogation but further investigation extended the possibilities into the area of mind control and manipulation of personality states. The goal is to overwhelm the personality for the purpose of introducing new behavior, thoughts and feelings. After the erosion of one’s sense of self, messages are repeated in a continuous loop over long periods of time and can be further paired with pain or pleasure to generate conditioned responses. When combined with dissociated states new personalities with separate belief systems and behavior can be established. Early on, psychic-driving consisted of audio messages played in tape loops but quickly evolved to include staged scenes using 3-dimensional objects, culminating in animatronic33 devices and virtual reality experiences. The perceived figures delivering these messages may represent people from the child’s life, alters within the child’s developing DID system or fictional characters. This evolution of psychic-driving technique made the messages interpersonal and not simply a voice in one’s head. The 3-dimensional objects – from simple dolls and mannequins to sophisticated puppetry and animatronics – allowed for the processes of projection and introjection to take place.
Let me clarify what I mean by the interpersonal nature of later generation psychic-driving techniques: I had a friend that was serious about practicing meditation. He traveled to Burma for several months to study with a renowned teacher of Theravāda Buddhism. It was a rare opportunity to study the mechanics of how our minds work and to gain the wisdom that comes from experiencing ever more subtle levels of consciousness. When he arrived in the community he was intimidated to participate in the large meditation hall on his first day so instead he found one of the smaller meditation huts, scattered around the surrounding forest, to ease into his new environment. As he entered the secluded shelter – there was the teacher he had come to study with – sitting in meditation perfectly still at the front of the room. Just the two of them. My friend quickly sat down at the back of the room, his mind whirling with thoughts and emotions regarding this new development. For the next hour and a half he was all over the place – wanting to impress this teacher he had so much respect for; worried he was breathing too loudly; knees hurting but not wanting to move lest he be seen as a beginner; occasionally opening one eye to see the teacher sitting blissfully still and profoundly at peace as his own agitation and impatience increased. Finally he could not bear it any more and, after giving it his best effort, he arose to leave. On his way out he took a closer look – he had been sitting in front of a statue!
My friend was an adult with plenty of life experience practicing awareness in a safe community, not a frightened child, uncertain of where they were, and likely drugged or in a hypnotic state.
The first book length treatment of psychic-driving as a mind control technique was In the Sleep Room published in 1988.
In August 1977 Canadians reacted with horror and revulsion when they learned that in the 1950’s and early 1960’s, one of the most eminent psychiatrists in the country had used his vulnerable patients as unwitting guinea pigs in brainwashing experiments funded by the CIA and the Canadian government…Dr. Ewen Cameron, the director of Montreal’s Allan Memorial Institute34, exposed dozens of his own patients to barbaric treatments from which some never fully recovered.
Cameron was not alone in his desire to reprogram the human brain. The U.S. intelligence establishment found in him an eager collaborator, and funded his work substantially and covertly. Eventually, after years of stonewalling by the CIA, nine of the dozens of victims were at last given a chance to claim restitution for Cameron’s “treatments” by taking the powerful U.S. intelligence agency to court.35
A second book documenting this early research – and the subsequent legal case against U.S intelligence agencies36 – was written by the son of one of the survivors, himself a psychiatrist.37 Especially disturbing was the deeply unethical and illegal activities carried out by prominent medical authorities, including Cameron, who despite being present at the Nuremburg trials went on to engage in research that violated every aspect of the ensuing Nuremburg code. Cameron had already conceived of the technique he called “psychic-driving” by 1953 and claimed to be able to make “direct, controlled, changes in personality” when covert funding arrived to take the research even further.38 At the time, he was President of virtually every professional organization in his field including the Canadian, American and World Psychiatric Associations as well as the American Psychopathological Association and the Society of Biological Psychiatry. The excesses that came to light in Montreal were not isolated incidents, simply a rare situation where covert research came to light. In fact, during the legal proceedings that unearthed much of what we officially know about this particular project and period of time, the court ruled that the CIA did not have to disclose the names of the other 185 private researchers that came to light through discovery.39
Within just a few years, this allied scientific offensive would pursue classified research concealed inside public and private facilities of five major nations – including a British “intelligence research unit” at Maresfield, Sussex; an Anglo-American facility near Frankfurt for lethal experiments on captured Soviet-bloc “expendables”; CIA-funded psychology research at leading U.S. hospitals and universities; periodic allied conferences to exchange results; and, above all classified Canadian studies of sensory deprivation at McGill University.40
And of course, these were only the researchers that left a paper trail – usually due to records of government funding – a mistake that would not be repeated in the future.
Donald Hebb was a highly respected cognitive psychologist famous for Hebb’s Law stating: “neurons that fire together wire together”; a deeper truth is that he could also be considered one of the developers of psychological torture.41 He was Cameron’s colleague and head of the Psychology Department at McGill University. He also received covert funding from the U.S. intelligence community42 and the earliest public records of research in sensory deprivation are from Hebb and his students.43 A good summary of covert research at McGill can be found in Torture and Impunity: the U.S. Doctrine of Coercive Interrogation by Alfred McCoy44. He takes a scholarly approach, working with publicly available documents, which narrowly frame his research in terms of an acceptable narrative: interrogation techniques.
There is a much deeper story however: this research was far more wide-ranging and, though compartmentalized even for many of the researchers themselves, was being utilized for mind control and ultimately the creation of DID by others. What came to light was just the faintest indication of what was really going on. There is one memo, dated January 25, 1952 where the CIA declares its intentions: “the evaluation and development of any method by which we can get information from a person against his will and without his knowledge,” and eventually, “control of an individual where he will do our bidding against his will and even against such fundamental laws of nature as self-preservation.”45 Any investigative journalism that attempts to follow this trail will fail – and understandably so – the darker realities of this stated goal have no official documentation; the torture of children is a difficult sell, even under the guise of “national security.” There will be no authorized disclosures or official documentation regarding this level of research – only the narratives being pieced together in therapists’ offices by those who endured the legacy of this research – and there are many.
Sensory deprivation has a devastating psychological impact and can lead to the complete dissolution of the personality accompanied by hallucinations, delusional thinking and general incoherence. It is presently acknowledged as a form of torture; in fact, it is one of a group of “enhanced techniques” that are entirely psychological in nature and unique in that they do not conform to the general public understanding of what torture is.
Covert research on DID
The fact that Intelligence and Military sponsored doctors and researchers had intentionally created and used multiple personalities46 – this was the story that had to remain veiled and silenced and these disinformation efforts go well beyond the FMSF.47 48
The idea that there could be a deliberate disinformation campaign element to the False Memory movement is perfectly plausible, consistent with history, and could be expected. There is bound to be some sort of disinformation strategy if, in fact, Manchurian Candidates have been leaking out into civilian psychotherapy. So here we have, with all of this documentation, all of this proof – we know that it is perfectly possible that people we are seeing in therapy who are claiming to be victims of systematic military mind-control experimentation are telling us about what actually happened to them.49
From research to implementation
And that is exactly what is happening; survivors from around the world are coming forward and describing what happened to them. Some write memoirs with such skill that their voice establishes an emerging literature of these previously unknown histories.50
Others express their experiences through their art.51 The thought-bubble in the illustration below shows a ritual abuse trauma scene being recalled for aversive programming. This is taking place in a clinical setting where many other features of mind control programming are on display. The illustration represents a relatively simple programming site, both in terms of the era (1968) and the location (a Detroit pediatrician’s office). More comprehensive procedures would have been performed in other, more elaborate settings. Present day programming venues benefit from decades of additional research, improved technology and the latest pharmaceuticals.
(Illustration by Lynn Schirmer)
History Of Trauma Treatment
The type of treatment generally accepted by trauma experts, one which divides the overall trauma treatment into discrete phases or stages, each with its own treatment objectives and goals, is known as phase-oriented treatment.52 Phase-oriented trauma treatment, the idea of separate memory systems, and the realization that traumatic memory is different from ordinary memory, was first presented by Janet at the turn of the century.53 Janet followed Charcot as the head of Psychology at the Salpêtrière in Paris, the birthplace of modern dynamic psychiatry.54 Janet’s contribution is important because he was among the first to recognize dissociation as a cognitive disturbance, something he referred to as the narrowing of the field of consciousness, a concept Freud would later borrow and call repression.55 Out of this recognition grew the first information-processing model of trauma treatment, one that anticipated current treatment standards by a century.56
Understanding the true etiology of DID
Complex DID systems are not simply a response to trauma – even horrific trauma such as ritual abuse, though it does have a role to play. Nor is it caused iatrogenically by well-meaning therapists attempting to treat trauma survivors as Wikipedia would have us believe. DID is mind control, intentionally practiced and requiring a great deal of effort and conditioning over a period of many years. To develop an elaborate DID system is to endure an ongoing medical procedure throughout childhood, one that requires clinical settings with access to extensive equipment and pharmaceuticals.
At the turn of the century there were indeed cases of “split personality,” a phenomena observed by many of the pioneers attempting to make sense of dissociative processes: Pierre Janet in Paris; Breuer and Freud in Vienna; F.W.H. Myers in London; and Morton Prince in Boston. These initial reports were found to be the result of trauma in childhood but rarely produced more than a few alter states and often just one. Childhood incest does not lead to elaborate DID systems.
Modern DID bears no resemblance to these early, primitive cases but is instead the outcome of a century of covert research on these dissociative states and their successful creation and exploitation.
The exploitation can occur in many contexts, with the common feature being that any activity remains hidden and compartmentalized. Typical contexts of abuse, many of which overlap61, include: cults62 and deviant social networks; child pornography/prostitution; medical/psychological research63, military or intelligence networks64; private contractors;65 organized crime (banking, drugs66/weapons, human trafficking).
Of late there is an increasing privatization of what have traditionally been military and governmental services. These groups are without oversight and completely unaccountable to any democratic structures – covert activities are more easily compartmentalized and denied. Mind control, medical experimentation, and military/intelligence training with predominantly fascist ideologies all flourish in these contexts.67 68With DID – of obvious value is the ability to exert hidden control throughout society by placing people in key political, law enforcement, legal/judicial, and media positions.69 One example will suffice: a description of the alter named Ragen from the book The Minds of Billy Milligan70 published in 1981:
Ragen, age 23, is the ‘keeper of hate.’ His name is derived from “rage-again.” He identifies as Yugoslavian and speaks English with a noticeable Slavic accent. He also reads, writes, and speaks Serbo-Croatian. A weapons and munitions authority as well as a martial arts expert, he displays extraordinary strength stemming from his ability to control his adrenaline flow. [Another alter named Arthur reads and writes fluent Arabic.]
Not exactly the skill-sets one would expect as a random response to childhood trauma are they? And you would have to wonder what kind of an agenda a therapist would bring to create Ragen iatrogenically. Billy Milligan’s DID was a structured, clinically created system designed to produce a covert soldier. He was also trained to function in the Middle East, hence the fluent Arabic.
The false comfort of “national security”71
Some will claim that efforts to create DID in children were excesses of the Cold War, motivated by an urgency where the ends justified the means; and that the efforts were not successful. This is not the case. It is ongoing, and mind-control has spread far beyond the contexts of early research and is now fully operational in several generations of survivors.
Government, Military and Intelligence communities are vast labyrinths of agencies and personnel operating with various degrees of compartmentalization very similar to DID itself. Many honest, decent, ethical, hardworking people take part in these communities. Many others have lost their way. When corrupt factions within any of these organizations remain hidden and protected by claims of “national security” our democratic structures are undermined and eventually break down.
Clearly, people that would torture children to create DID, for any agenda, are sociopathic and merely hiding behind claims of “national security.” What they are really after is a type of power that is outside legal or ethical constraints and better described as organized crime. [A side note regarding language: The phrase “organized crime” does not raise eyebrows or end conversations. The phrase “conspiracy theory” does – yet “organized crime” and “conspiracy” are essentially equivalent in meaning.”] The whole idea of “national security” must be considered in light of the fact that high level German diplomatic, intelligence and military personnel were folded into the U.S. intelligence and military communities in the aftermath of the war. And it is not simply imported Nazis that tarnished our shining democracy. Few understand how many in the U.S. had always been sympathetic to the Nazis and their cause.72
Nazi research continues in the U.S.73
General Reinhard Gehlen, the most senior German intelligence officer on the Eastern front…derived much of his information from his role in one of the most terrible atrocities of the war: the torture, interrogation, and murder by starvation of some 4 million Soviet prisoners of war…the success of this interrogation program from the German military’s point of view became, in fact, the cornerstone of Gehlen’s career. It won him his reputation as an intelligence officer and his Major General’s rank.
But these same interrogations were actually a step in the liquidation of tens of thousands of POWs. Prisoners who refused to cooperate were often tortured or summarily shot. Many were executed even after they had given information, while others were simply left to starve to death. True, Gehlen’s men did not personally administer the starvation camps, nor are they known to have served in the execution squads. Such tasks were left to the SS, whose efficiency in such matters is well known.
Instead, Gehlen’s men were in a sense like scientists who skimmed off the information and documents that rose to the surface of these pestilent camps. Now and again they selected an interesting specimen: a captured Russian General ready to collaborate, perhaps, or a Ukrainian railroad expert who might supply the locations of vulnerable bridges when given some encouragement to talk. Gehlen’s officers were scientists in somewhat the same way that concentration doctors were: Both groups extracted their data from the destruction of human beings.74
Yet Gehlen did not suffer the same fate as his victims after the War – most people are stunned to discover that he was working for the U.S. within months of surrendering to American Counterintelligence in May of 1945. Of even greater concern – he brought his entire network of collaborators and Nazi military and intelligence contacts with him.
Intelligence networks were just one of the groups exploited after the war. Nazi doctors, chemical warfare specialists, weapons systems developers – scientists in every imaginable field – mind control research included, all found protection and work. Also protected were the powerful bankers and industrialists with their global cartels that could be said to have financed the Nazis’ rise to power in the first place and posed the greatest threat to a resurgence of Fascism later.75 Surely these “assets” contributed more than their skills and knowledge. They brought their political philosophy with them as well, and that political philosophy was Fascism.
Nazi scientists working on U.S. weapons development (Space Program); brought to the U.S. under Project Paperclip at White Sands Proving Ground, New Mexico, in 1946. Twenty two were still living in 1985 when another group photo was taken, standing in front of a Saturn V rocket, at the Alabama Space and Rocket Museum in Huntsville, Alabama.
NASA and the aerospace industry were home to many Nazi scientists:
The most famous is Wernher von Braun. He was a member of the Nazi party and an Nazi SS officer responsible for the design and building of the V-2 Rocket at Mittelwerk and Peenemünde. During the war, Peenemünde became the birthplace of modern rocketry with the development of the V-2 Rocket. After the site was bombed by the Allies a new research center was built near Blizna, Poland using 2000 prisoners from the Pustkow concentration camp. They were killed after completing the project.76 Part of bringing him to the U.S. involved expunging his Nazi activities during the war and minimizing his involvement (He had joined the SS at the personal behest of SS chief Heinrich Himmler.) He denied being aware of the forced labor using prisoners (20,000 worked to death from Mittelbau-Dora) but evidence suggests otherwise.77 He was to become the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama and instrumental in popularizing space flight and nuclear energy, the dark sides of which are, of course, the development of weapons systems:
Less than ten years after the liberation of Dora-Nordhausen, von Braun was giving orders to Disney animators and designing a ride at Disneyland called “Rocket to the Moon.” Heinz Haber, another key Tomorrowland adviser and eventually the chief scientific consultant to Walt Disney Productions – spent much of World War II conducting research on high-speed, high-altitude flight for the Luftwaffe Institute for Aviation Medicine. In order to assess the risks faced by German air force pilots, the institute performed experiments on hundreds of inmates at the Dachau concentration camp near Munich. The inmates who survived these experiments were usually killed and then dissected. Haber left Germany after the war and shared his knowledge of aviation medicine with the U.S. Army Air Force. He later cohosted Disney’s “Man in Space”78 with von Braun. When the Eisenhower administration asked Walt Disney to produce a show championing the civilian use of nuclear power, Heinz Haber was given the assignment. He hosted the Disney broadcast called “Our Friend the Atom”79 and wrote a popular children’s book with the same title, both of which made nuclear fission seem fun, instead of terrifying.80 “Our Friend the Atom” was sponsored by General Dynamics, a manufacturer of nuclear reactors. The company also financed the atomic submarine ride at Disneyland’s Tomorrowland.81
The Scientific Advisors for the Disney film Man in Space from left to right: Dr. Heinz Haber, Dr Wernher Von Braun, and Willy Ley. The acknowledgements in the screen capture hint at the real emphasis of the space program which was sold to the public via NASA, a civilian space agency.
Major General Walter Dornberger was the wartime commander at the Peenemünde missile site. He oversaw the forced labor from the Nordhausen concentration camp where 20,000 prisoners were worked to death. After the war he came to the U.S., eventually becoming Vice President of Bell Aerosystems.
Arthur Rudolph received NASA’s Distinguished Service Award in 1969 for his role as project director for the Saturn V moon rocket. He was well qualified. “[He was] chief operations director of the Mittelwerk rocket factory. Not only had he set the schedules by which prisoners were worked to death; but, it was later discovered, he had reported instances of suspected sabotage by prisoners to the SS that led to their subsequent executions.”82 German engineers turned prisoners over to the SS for minor offenses and were hanged as a result – something as minor as offering a cigarette or bending over to tie a shoelace. Though Rudolph didn’t remember much about all of this, the crane used to hang prisoners was adjacent to his office.83
Kurt Debus was a member of the Nazi SS and SA and a German V-2 rocket scientist who would become the first director of NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in 1962.
In the political realm there were many former Nazis that went on to positions of great power. For example Kurt Waldheim became the Secretary General of the United Nations. With help, he was able to hide his Nazi past until the end of his career. From his New York Times obituary:
Although it was never proved that Waldheim himself committed atrocities during World War II, he was a lieutenant in army intelligence, attached to brutal German military units that executed thousands of Yugoslav partisans and civilians and deported thousands of Greek Jews to death camps from 1942 to 1944. Waldheim lied about his wartime service in the Balkans…but more than four decades later, his assertions were disputed by witnesses, photographs, medals and commendations given to Waldheim, and by his own signature on documents linked to massacres and deportations.84
A good example of the denial and compartmentalization within society as it struggles with accountability is reflected in the juxtaposition that occurs even in this brief obituary. Going from discussing his role in “massacres and deportations” to the final paragraph:
Waldheim was clearly not a psychopath like Dr. Josef Mengele nor a hate-filled racist like Adolf Hitler…His very ordinariness, in fact, may be the most important thing about him. For if history teaches us anything, it is that the Hitlers and the Mengeles could never have accomplished their atrocious deeds by themselves. It took hundreds of thousands of ordinary men – well-meaning but ambitious men like Kurt Waldheim – to make the Third Reich possible. [emphasis added]
Of the doctors, there were many, including Mengele and Hubertus Strughold, the “father of American space medicine,” whose early research in the concentration camps included, among many other things, testing the limits of human endurance by putting prisoners in ice water, or pressure chambers and gathering data as they slowly died. Many mind control survivors report Mengele as traveling in the U.S. and training American doctors in mind control methods.
The investigations into Nazis brought to the U.S. were as inadequate and compromised as the Congressional hearings of CIA and Intelligence abuses during the 70s and we will never know the full extent or the real legacy of these projects. Occasionally an article will appear that serves more to reassure through its superficiality than reveal deeper truths. Reading the link in the endnotes to the New York Times Article85 – which itself links to a 600 page “secret” Justice Department Report – is a good example of how insipid the search for justice has been – and continues to be. The New York Times itself was part of the problem, in one instance installing Abwehr Lieutenant Paul Hoffman, adjutant to the top Nazi war criminal in Italy, as the Times’ Rome Bureau Chief at the request of US intelligence.86 More than simply an ineffectual investigation it was an elaborate cover-up.87
In fact, various Governmental Departments and Intelligence goals, often manifesting through private foundations and front organizations – or was it the other way around? – private foundations and corporate interests manifesting through the Governmental Departments and Intelligence agencies – covertly influenced and funded virtually every niche of the cultural sphere. Two major players, both private, non-democratic, non-governmental pivots of Cold War power were the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations:
…the Rockefeller Brothers Fund Inc., a major think-tank which was incorporated in New York in the 1940. In 1957 the fund brought together the most influential minds of the period under a Special Studies Project whose task was to attempt a definition of American foreign policy. Subpanel II was designated to the study of International Security Objectives and Strategy. [Members included Henry and Clare Booth Luce, publishers of Time, Life, and Fortune Magazines; Laurence and Nelson Rockefeller; Henry Kissinger; and William Bundy of the CIA.]
The convergence between the Rockefeller billions and the US government exceeded even that of the Ford Foundation. John Foster Dulles [a major facilitator of illegal Nazi immigration after the war, often using American charities.88] and later Dean Rusk both went from the presidency of the Rockefeller Foundation to become Secretaries of State. Other Cold War heavies such as John McCloy and Robert Lovett featured prominently as Rockefeller trustees. Nelson Rockefeller’s central position on this foundation guaranteed a close relationship with US intelligence circles: he had been in charge of all intelligence in Latin America during the Second World War. [Where his company, Standard Oil, was distributing pro-Nazi propaganda, hiding patents to protect the German corporate cartels, and diverting fuel oil to the German government in 1941 and throughout the war.89] Later, his associate in Brazil, Colonel J. C. King, became CIA chief of clandestine activities in the western hemisphere. When Nelson Rockefeller was appointed by Eisenhower to the National Security Council in 1954, his job was to approve various covert operations. If he needed any extra information on CIA activities, he could simply ask his old friend Allen Dulles [who Claudia Mullen mentions in her Congressional testimony mentioned earlier.] for a direct briefing. One of the most controversial of these activities was the CIA’s MK-ULTRA – or “Manchurian Candidate” – program of mind-control research during the 1950s. This research was assisted by grants from the Rockefeller Foundation.90 [comments in brackets added]
For many years there was the Hubertus Strughold Aeromedical Library. The Air Force finally removed his name in 1995. The American Space Medicine Association still gives its prestigious Hubertus Strughold award, though some journalists are waking up to the fact that there might be a story there.91
The examples above are simply to suggest a context for this line of thinking and are but the tip of the iceberg. There are abundant examples: the failure of denazification and “ratlines” out of Europe after the war – not all of which led to the U.S.92 The myth of Swiss neutrality during and after the War.93 The Catholic Church’s role in protecting stolen wealth and war criminals.94 The true fate of Bormann95, who controlled vast amounts of looted wealth for the Nazi Party and his South American network – and Hitler96, who Stalin never believed died in Berlin – are worth investigating. But for the purposes of this paper, it is the Nazi doctors and their psychological research that are of most interest. Much of what they were researching was never revealed to the public and remained classified. It was concealed, along with their pasts, as they were brought to a new home. A few things would not change. Their fight against Communism could continue, as could their sociopathic conduct of science.
But the Nazi doctors are much more than metaphor or analogue in the history of CIA torture research. Just as the U.S. space program benefited from the work of Wernher von Braun’s rocket scientists at Peenemünde, and the Luftwaffe’s murderous medical experiments at Dachau, so this CIA mind-control effort continued the research of the Nazi doctors, both their specific findings and their innovative use of human subjects. In 1942, the Luftwaffe did pioneering research into altitude sickness and hypothermia on some two hundred prisoners at the Dachau concentration camp, documenting their agonizing deaths in graphic films shown at the 1942 Nazi aviation medical conference. After the war, the U.S. Air Force, enticed by the scientific significance of this work, recruited thirty-four of these Nazi doctors who had eluded Nuremberg’s net to establish its School of Aviation Medicine at Randolph Field, Texas – bringing the Reich’s research esprit into the heart of U.S. military medicine. In 1950, the U.S. Air Force effectively expunged these crimes from the historical record by publishing German Aviation Medicine: World War II, a hagiographic account of these Nazi doctors as heroic men who “showed great scientific understanding…and personal concern in aeromedical research.”97
And what was happening in the United States during this mass migration of Nazis and their collaborators? Well, in America we were looking under every bed for Communists and watching our televisions. (Although it is commonly understood that television came into existence in America in the 50s, it actually appeared much earlier in Germany. With access to the American Philo Farnsworth’s patents, the world’s first broadcasting began with Greater German Television in March of 1935.)98 Germany, of course, used their television broadcasting for propaganda. Not here though; what kind of programming did this amazing technology, with so much potential, provide in the U.S.? A sitcom, taking place in a German concentration camp, complete with laugh track – Hogan’s Heroes (September 1965 – March 1971).
The return of the unconscious.
By the early 90s the awakening that happened in our culture during the 60s was taking hold. Though much of the promise of those years had rolled over and gone back to sleep there remained an awareness of the prevalence and the nature of trauma in society. The ability to speak about this legacy of violence and abuse was largely due to the Women’s Movement and the returning Viet Nam Veterans suffering from what we now know as PTSD.99As therapists got up to speed and rediscovered the true dynamics of trauma and dissociation, known at the turn of the century but lost as a generation wandered between the odd polarity of Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis, something happened – the real unconscious was rediscovered; not the one distorted by questionable theories of childhood sexuality, where children wanted to have sex with their parents (the idea that reports of incest were just a fantasy and nothing to be alarmed about).
The unconscious that held “that which must not be talked about” returned – it had been banned entirely from Behaviorism – and this more authentic unconscious was not particularly welcome.
In addition to the chorus of reports of incest and sexual abuse, survivors were talking about increasingly disturbing events. Child pornography rings – some used for political blackmail at the highest levels100, deviant social networks involving ritual abuse, unethical medical research, and mind-control, practiced originally by the military and intelligence communities, but now spread far beyond into the shadowy world of fascist networks101 and organized crime.
This awakening needed a nap.
The goal of the disinformation campaign was to reframe the dynamics surrounding the abuse of power in ways that made the powerful the victims – those accused of abusing others would become the victims. A secondary goal was to intimidate therapists – making them afraid to listen to survivors. Suing therapists in court was an initial strategy that proved unsuccessful in the long run but still managed to put a chill on the field. How to proceed?
What better way than to take the backlash and denial that happens in families when their wounds are acknowledged and amplify it at the societal level – to play out in the media what usually plays out privately in families when hidden trauma is suddenly acknowledge – the rawness, the retaliation, the deep woundedness on all sides, the polarization that does, more often than not, tear families apart. It must have been with great relief that certain members of the FMSF advisory board102 took cover, sat back and watched the ensuing chaos. They knew better, which was the greater iniquity.
Later in the same interview mentioned earlier:
TAT: I notice that Martin Orne’s and David Dinges’ Experimental Psychiatry Research Foundation is throwing a reception at your scientific meeting to honor these families. If you don’t know whether any of these individuals are guilty or not, why are you having a reception to honor them?
Installing screen memory
A screen memory is any memory that masks another. Traditionally it was a memory (real or imagined) that masked a more troubling one. It refers to a psychodynamic process, operating unconsciously, that protects against truths too overwhelming or disturbing to acknowledge or process – remembering that the birthday cake fell to the floor and the birthday was ruined but not remembering the earlier, alcohol fueled drama of domestic violence that culminated in the lost cake and is the true cause of the ruined birthday.
Screen memories can be intentionally installed using hypnosis or by manipulating experience. Hypnosis is especially good for screen memories designed to account for lost time. The screen memory is flat and without great detail yet fills in for the missing time and creates a plausible explanation to account for the period when other alters were out.
A S [subject] who is able to develop good posthypnotic amnesia will also respond to suggestions to remember events which did not actually occur. On awakening, he will fail to recall the real events of the trance and will instead recall the suggested events. If anything, this phenomenon is easier to produce than total amnesia, perhaps because it eliminates the subjective feeling of an empty space in memory.103 [emphasis added]
This from Martin Orne, a founder of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, and heavily implicated in mind-control research. You have to wonder what the “real events of the trance” were likely to be, given his funding sources and documented history of unethical research projects. It certainly demonstrates a new way to think about “false memories” and “real memories” and suggests that perhaps there is some ulterior purpose here. At the very least one must consider that false memories can be used to conceal abuse.
The FMSF is not too concerned about inaccurate memory (or even simple denial) when it might conceal abuse – in fact, their concern is not really about the reliability of memory at all as much as it is about reports of abuse.
Manipulated experience insures that if compartmentalized memory does begin to break down the emerging screen memory will damage credibility and generate a false narrative that keeps the survivor from understanding what actually happened. This is often used in the abuse of children to discredit any reporting. When a preschooler tries to talk about being abused by cartoon characters they are unlikely to find a receptive audience.
One of my clients described her sudden realization as a child that Satan – terrifying as he appeared to be – wore a costume requiring a zipper. Another survivor had a similar realization regarding the “aliens” that were tormenting her – they spoke flawless English, though one had a slight German accent – their performance was more theatrical than intergalactic. Another DID client had hidden observer alters that were able to explain that the “spaceship” where some of her alters were being worked on was actually an Airstream trailer.
This brings us to what I believe is another major disinformation campaign, in addition to the FMSF, designed to keep the lid on mind-control over the last 50 years – disinformation regarding alien abduction. This disinformation campaign was actually two-fold. It also provided disinformation regarding the development of weapons systems and covert advances in aeronautics (UFOs).
Bear with me.
Alien abduction – The most reasonable explanation given the evidence?
Many books have been written about abductees, yet few exist about the victims of mind-control. I cannot understand this situation; the reality of UFOs is still controversial, yet the existence of mind-control was verified in two (heavily compromised) congressional investigations104 and in thousands of FOIA [Freedom of Information Act] documents. Nevertheless, the abductees find many a sympathetic ear, while those few who dare to proclaim themselves the victims of known government programs rarely find anyone to hear them out. Our prejudices on this score are regrettable, for if we listened to the [mind-control survivors] we would hear many details strikingly similar to those mentioned by UFO abductees.105
During the height of the FMSF disinformation campaign, when it would have been helpful to hear from therapists that were working with DID; had knowledge of Ritual Abuse; and understood the role that mind-control programming played in dissociated memory, I picked up the New York Times Magazine and instead saw a cover article on people that were recovering memories of alien abduction106[!] – further obfuscating the discussion on recovered memory and leaving the public even more bewildered. Perhaps even more importantly, a public that was less inclined to accept the truth of recovered memory.
One of the first questions to ask is whether these two worlds of covert research and UFO enthusiasm ever intersect. It turns out they do.
Barry Taff, Ph.D., wrote an article107 for UFO Magazine in 1987 suggesting that aliens are responsible for people’s recovered memories of mind control and medical experimentation. Nothing remarkable about that except that Barry worked at UCLA’s Neuropsychiatric Institute with Louis Joylon West, the documented mind-control researcher [Top Secret clearance as the contractor on MKULTRA Subproject 43 – CIA documents show that grants were given to Louis Jolyon West for studies on, “Psychophysiological Studies of Hypnosis and Suggestibility” and “Studies of Dissociative States”; one of his later research proposals involved “implanting tiny electrodes deep within the brain.”] West, Taff’s colleague at UCLA, was also on the advisory board of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. The Foundation likes to point out the absurdity of alien abduction stories when denying the reality of recovered memory. This is all circumstantial of course so let’s look at what else Dr. Taff is involved with when he is not exploring the world of UFOs. The impressive biography on his website states that he has “consulted for government, business, and law enforcement, including the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), National Security Agency (NSA), Defense Language Institute (DLI), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the FBI, Interpol…”
As far as I know the FMSF never went after Dr. Taff for his belief in extraterrestrials. Apparently, if you worked with Louis Joylon West at the Neuropsychiatric Institute your belief in alien abduction qualifies you for consulting work with virtually every military and intelligence organization known. However, if you are a therapist working with survivors that claim to be exploited by corrupt factions of those very same institutions – you are a menace to society.
John Mack, the Harvard Psychiatrist and subject of the New York Times Magazine article mentioned above, reports cases of recovered alien implants to support his theories of alien abduction yet research on the Electronic Stimulation of the Brain (ESB) – in some cases using intracerebral implants – was well underway when José Delgado published his book Physical Control of the Mind108 in 1969. (The renewed push for research in this area, while framed as being about medical advances, has disturbing implications regarding more sophisticated access and manipulation of the mind that could be used for a new generation of mind control techniques109)
Electronic stimulation of the brain – through implants or wirelessly – was also documented throughout the House and Senate Select Committees investigating covert government research in the 1970s. There is abundant precedent for these studies, yet the rare survivors who have come forward and documented the fact that they carry unknown devices or implants using X-ray or MRI are seen as proof of – alien abduction!
I see increasing polarization occurring in society as more and more information comes out and more survivors come forward. There will be attempts to discredit survivors and to misinform and censor content for those seeking information but to no avail; there are too many survivors and they will continue to speak their truth in an ever-increasing chorus. There will always be push back, which at first is able to suppress but inevitably must give way to a situation where validation is there for those who seek it. So yes, survivors will have a voice and that is significant, but we will have to wait to see how far that voice reaches.
A metaphor for how this will play out is the awakening happening in society regarding a sustainable “food movement” in opposition to industrial agriculture and corporate cartels110. Organic food, Co-ops, farmers’ markets and local food systems are available and here to stay, but they remain marginalized; the tension between these interests will not resolve easily or quickly and in fact can be seen as part of the endless drama involving issues of justice and power. When alternatives are no longer completely silenced whose voice gets heard becomes the issue and this is where disinformation and propaganda have their increasingly important role.
Continuing with the metaphor of food politics, here are two Orwellian examples of misdirection and disinformation – showing how it looks when a nod is required while continuing business as usual.
Michelle Obama planted an organic garden on the white house lawn to great fanfare, as you no doubt have heard. Crop Life America, a lobbying organization for the pesticide and biotech industries, actually sent her a letter encouraging her to use pesticides on her little garden. People shook their heads.
Not reported in the media was the administration’s appointment, during a Senate recess, of the Vice President of Crop Life – the source of the letter – as the Nation’s chief agricultural negotiator, thereby putting a pesticide lobbyist in charge of US agricultural trade.111
A second example of PR in the service of business as usual also happens to involve Michelle Obama and food politics:
In an expansion of the recent marketing experiments that have brought PepsiCo ever closer to the music industry, the company has embarked on a hybrid project with Beyoncé that will include standard advertising like commercials as well as a multimillion-dollar fund to support the singer’s chosen creative projects. “Pepsi embraces creativity and understands that artists evolve,” Beyoncé said in a statement.112
Before she “evolved” Beyoncé had teamed up with Michelle Obama on the “Let’s Move!” project to eliminate childhood obesity, first announced in February 2010. A main feature of the heavily promoted campaign was the “Move Your Body” music video featuring Beyoncé dancing with high school students. Though the goals of the campaign ostensibly were to encourage healthier foods and more physical activity for children, along with better food labeling, the video did more to promote Beyoncé’s cachet with youth than change food habits:
The program was funded through cuts to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. (Food stamps) – an important safety net for millions of families and children. This alone caused a lot of grief but a skeptic might also point out that the tremendous momentum of this publicly funded campaign, along with its celebrity spokesperson Beyoncé, was quickly utilized – and its message turned inside-out – by private industry. In other words: public money, taken from a safety-net program, was essentially a gift to PepsiCo for the initial portion of a major ad campaign and an anti-obesity project became a celebration of junk food.113
“Consumers are seeking a much greater authenticity in marketing from the brands they love,” said Brad Jakeman, president of PepsiCo’s global beverage group.
Denial in society regarding dark doings is circular: there is a lack of information due to concealment and misdirection. For survivors, there is also resistance to the information due to the disturbing nature of their disclosures, which are difficult to process. The result is that the public remains largely uninformed. Yet when information is made available it is rejected for the very same reasons (no context and too overwhelming).
Brian Moss, MA, MFT is a Clinical Fellow and Approved Supervisor of the American Association of Marriage & Family Therapy. He lives in Seattle and consults widely, working in partnership with DID clients and their therapists.
1 Laing, R. D. (1970). Knots. New York: Pantheon. p. 55.
2 Fox, J. (Filmmaker). (2010). Gasland [Motion Picture on DVD]. USA: New Video Group. Retrieved November, 2012, from http://www.gaslandthemovie.com/
The full movie should be available on YouTube with a quick search.
3 Fox, J. (Filmmaker). (2012). The sky is pink [Video] Retrieved November, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1AOidAeZmOw&feature=youtube
While the new film’s protagonist, Shelly DePue, is indeed a farmer from rural Pennsylvania, the notion that Truthland is a depiction of her independently-planned road trip around the United States to “find out just what the truth was” became less and less believable the more we examined it. Rather, the film and its “full-scale website and social media campaign” was planned from start to finish by the natural gas industry. Even its web domain, truthlandmovie.com, was registered by industry giant Chesapeake Energy.
6 Dallam, S. J. (2002). Crisis or Creation: A systematic examination of false memory claims. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 9 (3/4), 9-36. Quote p. 13. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/dallam/6.html
Summary: In 1992, the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF), an advocacy organization for people claiming to be falsely accused of sexual abuse, announced the discovery of a new syndrome involving iatrogenically created false memories of childhood sexual abuse. This article critically examines the assumptions underlying “False Memory Syndrome” to determine whether there is sufficient empirical evidence to support it as a valid diagnostic construct. Epidemiological evidence is also examined to determine whether there is data to support its advocates’ claim of a public health crisis or epidemic. A review of the relevant literature demonstrates that the existence of such a syndrome lacks general acceptance in the mental health field, and that the construct is based on a series of faulty assumptions, many of which have been scientifically disproven. There is a similar lack of empirical validation for claims of a “false memory” epidemic. It is concluded that in the absence of any substantive scientific support, “False Memory Syndrome” is best characterized as a pseudoscientific syndrome that was developed to defend against claims of child abuse.
7 Lowenstien, R. (December, 1992). President’s Message in ISSMP&D News. pp.1-4. International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality and Dissociation.
The Foundation is media-directed, dedicated to putting out disinformation…FMS is a syndrome without signs and symptoms – the defining characteristics of a syndrome…One agenda of at least some members of this foundation seems to be that of creating a standard legal defense for well-to-do individuals who may be sued by their children alleging childhood sexual abuse.
8 Carstensen, L., Gabrieli, J., Shepard, R., Levenson, R., Mason, M., Goodman, G., Bootzin, R., Ceci, S., Bronfrenbrenner, U., Edelstein, B., Schober, M., Bruck, M., Keane, T., Oltmanns, R., Gotlib, I. & Ekman, P. (1993). Repressed objectivity. APS Observer, March, p. 23.
9 Dallam, S. J. (2002). Crisis or Creation: A systematic examination of false memory claims. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 9 (3/4), 9-36. Quote p. 13. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/dallam/6.html
Freyd, P. (1998, June). Dear friends. FMS Foundation Newsletter, 7, p. 1-2.
Ross, C. M.D. (2006). The CIA doctors: Human rights violations by American psychiatrists. Manitou Publications.
Martin T. Orne MKULTRA contracts and selected documents in Appendix C p. 285.
Martin T. Orne CIA and military contracts in Appendix F p. 309.
Martin Orne was born in Vienna on October 1, 1927. He died on February 11, 2000. Dr. Orne immigrated to the United States with his family in 1938, studied psychology at Harvard and then went to medical school, receiving his M.D. from Tufts University Medical School in 1955. He received his Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard in 1958 while in his first year of training in psychiatry. He received CIA money through MKULTRA Subproject 84 in 1958; Subproject documents indicate that he received TOP SECRET clearance from the CIA in 1960. p. 118.
Dr. Orne received research money from the CIA, Army, Navy and Air Force. He published many papers relevant to the creation of amnesia and Manchurian Candidates including one entitled “Can a hypnotized subject be compelled to carry out otherwise unacceptable behavior?” Another example is a paper entitled “Attempting to breach posthypnotic amnesia”. Coauthor on that paper, Dr. John Kihlstrom is on the Advisory Board of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation.
Dr. Orne also studied the cueing and triggering phenomena developed in BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE as a method of programming Manchurian Candidates. One paper was entitled “The significance of unwitting cues for experimental outcomes: Toward a pragmatic approach” and another “Restricted use of success cues in retrieval during posthypnotic amnesia.” p. 119.
The FMSF [founded by Orne] is the only organization in the world that has attacked the reality of multiple personality in an organized, systematic fashion. FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board Members publish most of the articles and letters to editors of psychiatry journals hostile to multiple personality disorder…Is this honest academic opinion, or disinformation? If any of the FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board Members are attacking multiple personality disorder for disinformation purposes, this is itself a violation of professional and medical ethics. p. 113.
Constantine, A. (1995). Psychic dictatorship in the U.S.A.. Feral House. Chapter: The False Memory Hoax, 53-75.
The CIA, in fact, has several designates on the FMSF advisory board. They have in common, backgrounds in mind control experimentation. Their very presence on the board, and their peculiar backgrounds, reveal some heavily obscured facts about ritual child abuse.
Martin T. Orne, a senior CIA researcher, is an original board member of the Foundation, and a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania’s Experimental Psychiatry Lab in Philadelphia. In 1962 his forays into hypnotic programming (the elicitation of “anti-social” behavior, dissolving memory and other mind-subduing techniques) were financed by a CIA front at Cornell University. He was also funded by Boston’s Scientific Engineering Institute, another front, and a clearinghouse for the Agency’s investigation of the occult. [He was also funded by the Human Ecology Fund, a CIA cover at Cornell University and the underwriter of many of the formative mind-control experiments conducted in the U.S. and abroad, including the gruesome brainwashing experiments of Ewen Cameron at Montreal’s Allan Memorial Institute (Psychic-driving)]
The CIA and Pentagon have formed a partnership in the creation of cults. To be sure, the Association of National Security Alumni, a public interest veterans group opposed to clandestine ops, considers it a “primary issue of concern” that the Department of Defense has a “perceived role in satanic cult activities, which qualify in and of themselves as very damaging exercises in mind control.”
The smoothing over of the national security state’s cult connections is handled by academic “experts.” p. 64.
11 United States of America Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (Public Meeting) Wednesday, March 15th 1995. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet12/trnsc12a.txt
Claudia Mullen, R.N., testimony (scroll down) Retrieved from http://ritualabuse.us/mindcontrol/mc-documents-links/mk-ultra-links-torture-based-government-sponsored-mind-control-experimentation-on-children/
Claudia certainly knew the players involved: The Office of Research and Development (ORD) was housed within the CIA’s Directorate of Science and Technology. Dr. Stephen Aldrich took over the leadership role that Morse Allen and then Sid Gottlieb had played before him. (p. 224) In 1950 the 40 year old Allen Morse headed behavioral techniques on human subjects for the CIA as part of project BLUEBIRD even though he had no training in behavioral research. (p.25-26) By the end of 1954, Allen Dulles took the behavioral research function away from Morse Allen and gave it to Sid Gottlieb and MKULTRA personnel with more scientific orientations. (p. 198) (p. 116).
13 Welsome, E. (1999). The plutonium files: America’s secret medical experiments in the cold war. New York: Dell.
In a deeply shocking and important expose, Welsome takes the lid off the thousands of secret, government-sponsored radiation experiments performed on unsuspecting human “guinea pigs” at U.S. hospitals, universities and military bases during the Cold War. This riveting report greatly expands on Welsome’s Pulitzer Prize-winning 1994 articles in the Albuquerque Tribune, which told how 18 men, women and children scattered in hospital wards across the country were injected with plutonium by U.S. Army and Manhattan Project doctors between 1945 and 1947. As Welsome demonstrates, the scope of the government’s radiation experimentation program went much further. She documents how, between 1951 and 1962, the Army, Navy and Air Force used military troops in flights through radioactive clouds, “flashblindness” studies and tests to measure radioisotopes in their body fluids. Additionally, she reveals that cancer patients were subjected to total-body irradiation, and women, children, the poor, minorities, prisoners and the mentally disabled were targeted for radio-isotope “tracer” studies, frequently without their consent and in some cases suffering excruciating side effects and premature deaths. In 1993, Energy Secretary Hazel O’Leary launched a campaign to make public all documents relating to the experiments, which had been kept secret. Welsome cogently argues that O’Leary’s efforts resulted in a Republican vendetta that led to her ouster. Written with commendable restraint, this engrossing narrative draws liberally on declassified memos, briefings, phone calls, interviews and medical records to convey the enormity of the irradiation program and the bad science behind the flawed and dangerous tests and to document the government’s systematic cover-up. [from Publishers Weekly book review]
Documents show that as early as 1954 Morse Allen was experimenting with hypnosis for the purpose of creating a “Manchurian Candidate” or programmed assassin. p. 195
15 Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control. New York: Norton.
This was a very real possibility as revealed in documents: During the Summer of 1954 Morse Allen lobbied for permission to try what he called “terminal experiments” in hypnosis. (p.197) As chief of the CIA’s ARTICHOKE project, Allen agreed to push sensory deprivation experiments into “terminal type” tests if the Agency would provide expendable human subjects. (pp.41, 46, 47) In 1955, Dr. Maitland Baldwin, a neurosurgeon at the National Institute of Mental Health agreed to do terminal sensory deprivation experiments for ARTICHOKE’S Morse Allen. (pp.152, 216)
16 United States of America Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (Public Meeting) Wednesday, March 15th 1995. Claudia Mullen, R.N., delivering her testimony. (Video) Retrieved November, 2012 from http://vimeo.com/26846581
Claudia’s fellow survivor (Christine de Nicola) and their therapist (Valerie Wolf) also provided testimony at the same Congressional hearing: http://vimeo.com/26848915
17 van der Reijden, Joël (November 25, 2009). Beyond Dutroux ties to 1950s-era CIA covert operation (plus: the mysterious “Dr. Green”.) Institute for the Study of Globalization and Covert Politics. Retrieved December, 2012 from http://wikispooks.com/ISGP/miscellaneous/In_brief_beyond_Dutroux_ties_to_US_CIA.htm
18 Freyd, J. (1998). Science in the memory debate. Ethics & Behavior. 8(2) 101-113.
From special issue of Ethics & Behavior on “The Science and Politics of Recovered Memory.” Despite this documentation for both traumatic amnesia and essentially accurate delayed recall, memory science is often presented as if it supports the view that traumatic amnesia is very unlikely or perhaps impossible and that a great many, perhaps a majority, maybe even all, recovered memories of abuse are false…Yet no research supports such an implication and a great deal of research supports the premise that forgetting sexual abuse is fairly common. and that recovered memories are sometimes essentially true. 107.
19 Stanton, M. (July/August 1997). U-turn on memory lane. Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://web.archive.org/web/20071216011151/http://backissues.cjrarchives.org/year/97/4/memory.asp
20 Russell, D. (1999) Revised edition. The secret trauma: Incest in the lives of girls and women. New York: Basic Books. New introduction by the author. Winner of the C. Wright Mills Award. p.74.
21 Herman, J., Russel, D., Trocki, K. (1986). Long term effects of incestuous abuse in childhood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 1293-96.
22 Draijer, N. (1989). The role of sexual and physical abuse in the etiology of women’s mental disorders: The Dutch survey on sexual abuse of girls by family members. (unpublished manuscript, University of Amsterdam.)
23 Jacobson, A. & Richardson, B. (1987). Assault experiences of 100 psychiatric inpatients: evidence of the need for routine inquiry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 908-13; Bryer, J., Nelson, B., Miller, J., & Krol, A. (1987). Childhood sexual and physical abuse as factors in adult psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1426-30; Jacobson, A. (1989). Physical and sexual assault histories among psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 755-58; Briere, J. & Runtz, M. (1987). Post sexual abuse trauma: Data and implications for clinical practice. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 367-79.
24 Briere, J. & Zaidi, L. (1989). Sexual abuse histories and sequelae in female psychiatric emergency room patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1602-06.
25 Herman, J. (1992). Trauma and recovery: the aftermath of violence – from domestic abuse to political terror, New York: Basic Books. p. 122. See chapter 6: Survivors as Psychiatric Patients pp. 122-129.
Be sure to get the later edition containing a new Afterword: The Dialectic of Trauma Continues, in response to FMSF attacks on her book.
26 Calof, D. (1993). “A Conversation With Pamela Freyd, Ph.D. Co-Founder And Executive Director, False Memory Syndrome Foundation, Inc., Part I,” in Treating Abuse Today, Vol. III, No. 3. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://fmsf.com/v3n3-pfreyd.html
27 Lifton, R. (1986). The Nazi doctors: Medical killing and the psychology of genocide. New York: Basic Books. 418-19.
28 McCoy, A. (2012). Torture and impunity: the U.S. doctrine of coercive interrogation. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 53-54; Bloche, G & Marks, J. (July 7, 2005). Doctors and interrogators at Guantanamo Bay. New England Journal of Medicine 353 (1).
29 Constantine, A. (1995). Psychic dictatorship in the U.S.A.. Feral House. 58.
31 Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control. New York: Norton. pp. 135-136. Retrieved November 2012 from: http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/lsd/marks.htm
CIA director Allen Dulles initiated mind control research projects at Cornell University through the neurologist Dr. Harold Wolff. The Air Force and Army were running parallel programs. “Among the Air Force and Army project leaders were Dr. Fred Williams of the Air Force Psychological Warfare Division, Robert J. Lifton, Edgar Schein, Albert Biderman and Lieutenant Colonel James Monroe (an Air Force officer who would later go to work full time in CIA behavioral programs.) 136 footnote.
In 1951, Morse Allen, Director of the CIA’s Office of Research an Development (ORD) likened Cameron’s psychic-driving to “the creation of a vegetable.” p. 142
33 Animatronics is the use of electronics and robotics in mechanized puppets to simulate life. One of the first public demonstrations was Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln, the name given to an attraction featuring an animatronic version of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. It was originally showcased as the prime feature of the State of Illinois Pavilion at the 1964 New York World’s Fair. One year after its debut at the World’s Fair, the attraction opened at Disneyland.
Disneyland would eventually develop many rides based on the increasingly sophisticated developments in animatronics. In programming venues children, aided by hypnosis or drugs, are manipulated into introjecting these devices along with their messages, experiencing them as parts of self, significant outsiders, or fictional beings living inside of them.
Cameron had headed Allan Memorial since 1943, when the Rockefeller Foundation funded the new psychiatric facility at McGill University in Montreal. p. 141; Black, E. (2003). War against the weak: Eugenics and America’s campaign to create a master race. London: Four Walls Eight Windows:
Rockefeller money also funded the new Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in 1926 where Mengele did some of his early experiments:
Also among the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes were several that would soon make their mark in the history of medical murder. The first was the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry. The second was the Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. The third was the Institute for Brain Research. All received funding and administrative support from Americans, especially the Rockefeller Foundation. p. 138 Black.
This is especially interesting; many survivors have mentioned Mengele as training U.S. doctors in mind-control techniques in the years after WWII; they report him traveling freely and working in all areas of the country. I believe eugenics was closely interwoven with, and sometimes a cover for, mind-control research. The history of eugenics research – ongoing in some venues under the cover of “Human Genetics” – and American involvement in this research, both before and after the War, is well documented in Edwin Black’s, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race.
35 Collins, A. (1988). In the sleep room: The story of the CIA brainwashing experiments in Canada. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys.
36 Rauh, J. L. & Turner, J. C. (1990). Anatomy of a public interest case against the CIA. Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 11, 307-363.
37 Weinstein, H. (1988). Father, son and CIA: The riveting account of the destruction of one man’s life by secret mind-control experiments funded by the CIA. Toronto: Lorimer; Weinstein, H. (1990). Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of mind -control. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
Mark’s description of Cameron and the development of psychic driving: pp.140-148; Rutz, C. (2001). A nation betrayed: The chilling true story of secret cold war experiments performed on our children and other innocent people. Grass Lake, Michigan: Fidelity Publishing. Rutz describes her own abuse at the hands of both Cameron and Mengle: p. 49.
39 Weinstein, H. (1988). Father, son and CIA: The riveting account of the destruction of one man’s life by secret mind-control experiments funded by the CIA. Toronto: Lorimer. p. 184; McCoy, A. (2012). Torture and impunity: the U.S. doctrine of coercive interrogation. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 64.
40 Weinstein, H. (1988). Father, son and CIA: The riveting account of the destruction of one man’s life by secret mind-control experiments funded by the CIA. Toronto: Lorimer. p. 274
41 McCoy, A. (2006). A question of torture: CIA interrogation from the cold war to the war on terror. New York: Metropolitan Books. p. 33.
42 McCoy, A. (2012). Torture and impunity: The U.S. doctrine of coercive interrogation. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 72.
43 Myers, T. (1964). Sensory and perceptual deprivation. Bethesda, Maryland: Naval Medical Research Institute. Unclassified Report. p. 1.
44 McCoy, A. (2012). Torture and impunity: The U.S. doctrine of coercive interrogation. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 63-69.
45 McCoy, A. (2012). Torture and impunity: The U.S. doctrine of coercive interrogation. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 64.
46 Ross, C. (April 18, 1996). The CIA and military mind control research: Building the Manchurian Candidate. Lecture given at the Ninth Annual Western Clinical Conference on Trauma and Dissociation in Costa Mesa, CA.
Based on 15,000 pages of documents obtained from the CIA under the Freedom of Information Act:
…the theme here is not that there is a military intelligence conspiracy to cover up Manchurian Candidate creation…this whole network of old boys in psychiatry and psychology, who were covertly funded for part of the military and CIA intelligence mind-control network, are very influential in the history of psychiatry in a kind of nebulous fashion that just permeates the whole field.
…numerous connections to the mind control network illustrate how the network is maintained – not through any central conspiracy, but by an interlocking network of academic relationships, grants, conferences, and military appointments. Some doctors in the network were not funded directly by the CIA or military, but their work was of direct relevance to mind control, non-lethal weapons development, creation of controlled dissociation and the building of Manchurian Candidates.
47 Lacter, E. (December 18, 2012). Common Forms of Misinformation and Tactics of Disinformation about Psychotherapy for Trauma Originating in Ritual Abuse and Mind Control. End Ritual Abuse: the Website of Ellen P. Lacter, Ph.D., Retrieved December, 2012 from http://endritualabuse.org/activism/common-forms-of-misinformation-and-tactics-of-disinformation-about-psychotherapy-for-trauma-originating-in-ritual-abuse-and-mind-control/
As we consider these common forms of misinformation and tactics of disinformation used to discredit psychotherapy for trauma originating in ritual abuse and mind control, we are obliged to ask: Who would be motivated to launch such a vehement and deceitful attack against these therapists? Who stands to lose if these therapists do this work? If the bulk of these attacks came from clients who claimed that their therapists induced or implanted false memories in them, we might find an answer to our question. But, this does not seem to be the case. Instead, these attacks appear to usually come from parties who do not disclose the basis of their interest in this issue, and from organizations, and members and affiliates of such organizations, that directly advocate for people accused of crimes against children and from organizations that appear to share that agenda if one scratches just beneath the surface.
Such organizations include:
(a) The False Memory Syndrome Foundation “formed to provide legal and emotional support to those accused of sexual abuse.” (Murphy, 1997)
(b) The National Center for Reason and Justice, that states that it “supports people who are falsely accused or convicted of crimes against children” (see: http://ncrj.org/ and its resources listed here: http://ncrj.org/resources/bibliography/)
(c) The International Committee of Social, Psychiatric, Psychological, Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and Neurological Scientists, which submitted an amicus brief on behalf of Roman Catholic priest Paul M. Shanley in his appeal of his conviction of child sexual abuse. (Shanley’s sexual assault convictions were upheld on appeal.)
(d) The National Association for Consumer Protection in Mental Health Practices, that states that it was “founded in 1994, due to the alarming number of False Memory cases.” (see: http://www.hermanohme.com)
(e) (http://www.hermanohme.com/) The Commission for Scientific Medicine and Mental Health (the sister organization of “d” (above) which has the stated goal to “call for the reform of the mental health system, restricting it to those mental health treatments proven reasonably safe and effective by reliable scientific methods” (the last two organizations share a website here: http://www.hermanohme.com/)
Therefore, the Internet serves as something of an unregulated court of public opinion, where, to a large degree, allegedly falsely accused perpetrators of child abuse and their advocates and alleged victims of child abuse and their therapists and advocates, argue about:
(a) Whether child abuse is in itself traumatic.
(b) The existence of ritual abuse and mind control.
(c) The validity of recovered memories of abuse.
(d) The validity of dissociative disorders, especially DID.
(e) The practice of psychotherapy in relation to all of the above.
48 Salter, M. (2011), Organized abuse and the politics of disbelief. The 2nd Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference, Sydney.
During a period in which women and children’s testimony of incest and sexual abuse were gaining an increasingly sympathetic hearing, lobby groups of people accused of child abuse construed and positioned “ritual abuse” as the new frontier of disbelief. The term “ritual abuse” arose from child protection and psychotherapy practice with adults and children disclosing organized abuse, only to be discursively encircled by backlash groups with the rhetoric of “recovered memories”, “false allegations” and “moral panic”.
49 Ross, C. (2000). Bluebird: Deliberate creation of multiple personalities by psychiatrists. Manitou Communications.
51 Lynn Schirmer, both on her website http://lynnsart.net and in Dietrich, Anne, PhD. (2012). Reflections of trauma in art. BC Psychologist. Fall 2012: Art & Psychology. pp. 18-29. Retrieved from http://www.psychologists.bc.ca/sites/default/files/pdfs/BCPsychologist/BCPsychologist_Oct2012_web_spread.pdf
52 Brown, D., Scheflin, A., & Hammond, D. (1998). Memory, trauma, treatment and the law: an essential reference on memory for clinicians, researchers, attorneys, and judges, New York: Norton. (Chapter 13: Phase-Oriented Trauma Treatment, pp. 436-497). “We refer to these stages as: (1) stabilization, (2) integration, and (3) post-intergrative self and relational development.” p. 437.
53 Janet, P. (1904). Amnesia and the dissociation of memories by emotion. Journal de Pschologie, 1, pp. 417-453.
Janet, P. (1909). Problémes psychologiques de l’emotion. Revue Neurogique, 17, 1551-1687. “The individual, when overcome by vehement emotions, is not himself. Forgetting the event which precipitated the emotion has frequently been found to accompany intense emotional experiences in the form of continuous and retrograde amnesia” p. 1607.
Janet, P. (1925/1976). Psychological healing. (2 Vols.). New York: Arno. (French edition published 1919). “In such cases the person is unable to make the recital which we call narrative memory, and yet he remains confronted by [the] difficult situation.” Vol. 1, p. 660.
Janet, p. (1898). Névroses et idées fixes (Vol. 1). Paris: Alcan. “The traumatic nature of the dissociated memory prevents the integration (“synthesis”) of the traumatic events and splits off the traumatic memories from ordinary consciousness.” p. 145.
van der Hart, O., Brown, P., & van der Kolk, B. (1989). Pierre Janet’s treatment of post-traumatic stress. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 379-395.
van der Hart, O., & Horst, R. (1989). The dissociation theory of Pierre Janet. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 397-412.
van der Hart, O., & Friedman, B. (1989). A reader’s guide to Pierre Janet on dissociation: A neglected intellectual heritage. Dissociation, 2, 3-16.
van der Kolk, B., Brown, P., & van der Hart, O. (1989). Pierre Janet on post-traumatic stress. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2(4), 365-378.
van der Kolk, B., & van der Hart, O. (1989). Pierre Janet and the breakdown of adaptation in psychological trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1530-1540.
van der Kolk, B., van der Hart, O., & Brown, P. (1989). Pierre Janet and psychological trauma: The centenary of the publication of L’automatisme psychologique. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2(4), 365-378.
Hacking, I. (1995). Rewriting the soul: Multiple personality and the sciences of memory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Putnam, F. (1999). Pierre Janet and modern views of dissociation. pp. 116-135. In M. Horowitz (Ed.). Essential papers on posttraumatic stress disorder. New York: New York University Press.
54 Ellenberger, H. (1970). The discovery of the unconscious: the history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
Few people realize that the word “subconscious” was coined by Janet. His influence on modern dynamic psychiatry was immense, for example:
C. G. Jung repeatedly referred to Janet (whose lectures he had attended in Paris during the winter semester 1902-1903). The influence of Psychological Automatism can be seen from Jung’s way of considering the human mind as comprising a number of subpersonalities (Janet’s “simultaneous psychological existences”). What Jung called “complex” was originally nothing but the equivalent of Janet’s “subconscious fixed idea.” p. 406;
In their preliminary report (1893) and in their Studies on Hysteria (1895), Breuer and Freud referred to Janet’s work:
Though Freud had summarily acknowledged Janet’s previous research in 1893 and 1895, he became increasingly critical of him. Janet’s report on psychoanalysis at the London Congress in 1913, at which he claimed priority for the discovery of subconscious fixed ideas and cathartic therapy, was the signal for violent attacks against Janet by certain psychoanalysts. p. 408;
There is a convergence of doctrines between Janet and Pavlov. Both proclaimed the importance of force or energy in psychic activity, though Pavlov expressed it in physiological terms and Janet, in psychological terms. p. 405;
Janet is the most frequently cited author in Pavlov’s Conditioned Reflexes and Psychiatry; Janet was the first to describe the transference theory of psychotherapy: Haule, J. (1986) Pierre Janet and dissociation: The first transference theory and it origins in hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 29: 86-94; Janet also was the first to give a systematic description of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Pitman, R. (1987). Pierre Janet on obsessive-compulsive disorder (1903). Archive General Psychiatry. 44: 226-232; and Bulimia: Pope, H., Hudson, J., & Mialet, J. (1985). Bulimia in the late nineteenth century: The observations of Pierre Janet. Psychol. Med. 15, 739-743.
55 Janet is to Freud what Tesla is to Edison: the greater genius only recently gaining the attention they deserve. Janet stated: “what I called ‘narrowing of the field of consciousness’ Freud calls ‘repression.’” XVIIth International Congress of Medicine, London, 1913, Sec. XII, Part I, pp. 13-64; Freud borrowed many of Janet’s original ideas. Unfortunately, after abandoning the seduction theory and the traumatic origin of hysteria, Freud filtered these concepts through his distorted views of child sexuality. For more on the methods and concepts of Freud being modeled after those of Janet, See: Ellenberger, H. (1970). The discovery of the unconscious: the history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry, New York: Basic Books. pp. 539-540; For more on “contraction of the field of consciousness” See: Janet, P. (1901/1977). The mental state of hystericals. Washington, D.C.: University Publications of America. (preface p. 23; text p. 39):
If we would sum up in two words this rather complex definition, we should say: Hysteria is a form of mental disintegration characterized by a tendency toward the permanent and complete undoubling (dédoublement ) of the personality,” (p. 528); Janet on the narrowing of the field of consciousness: “One should go through the entire field of mental diseases and a part of physical diseases to show the mental and bodily disturbances resulting from the banishment of a thought from personal consciousness. (Janet, quoted in Ellenberger, 1970, p. 361).
56 van der Hart, O., Brown, P., & van der Kolk, B. (1989). Pierre Janet’s treatment of post-traumatic stress. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 379-395. See also, van der Kolk, B., & van der Hart, O. (1991). The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. American Imago, 48, 425-454. Many consider this paper to be the first contemporary statement of a clinical theory of traumatic memory. The authors, restating Janet’s early work, emphasize the differences between narrative memory and traumatic memory. “Healthy psychological functioning depends on the proper operation of the memory system which consists of a unified memory of all psychological facets related to a particular experience: sensation, emotions, thoughts and actions.” p.426.
57 Breuer, J and Freud, S. (1957). Studies on hysteria, New York: Basic Books. Studies on Hysteria (Originally published in 1895) is regarded as the cornerstone upon which all of modern psychoanalytic knowledge is built. It set forth the “cathartic” method of treatment employed by Breuer and Freud. In it, according to Dr. Ernest Jones, the biographer of Freud, “symptoms were cured by getting the patient to recollect in a state of hypnosis the circumstances of their origins and to express the emotions accompanying … This was the starting point of what later became psychoanalysis.” (book jacket notes); it should be noted that while Freud is generally credited with the discovery of the psychoanalytic method, he does not take credit, noting in a lecture that, “Granted…it is a merit to have created psychoanalysis, it is not my merit.” (American Journal of Psychology, 1910, Vol. 21.) He goes on in this lecture to credit Joseph Breuer with the development of the psychoanalytic method and its application to the study of hysteria (it would be more accurate to have credited Janet.) Breuer’s treatment of Anna O., on which Studies on Hysteria was founded, took place between 1880 and 1882. Anna O. was able to integrate her dissociated experiences and overcome the amnesia that then characterized the hysterical patient:
When the existence of this amnesia was brought to light, there at once followed a realization that the patient’s manifest mind was not the whole of it, that there lay behind it an unconscious mind. It was thus plain from the first that the problem was not merely the investigation of conscious mental processes, for which the ordinary methods of enquiry used in everyday life would suffice. If there were also unconscious mental processes, some special instrument was clearly required (Editor’s Introduction pp. 16-17).
After finishing his medical studies at the age of twenty nine, Freud studied in Paris with Charcot (1825-1893) where he witnessed hypnosis being used for this purpose. It was only after realizing that he was not adept at the use of hypnosis that Freud began to develop the tools of the psychoanalytic method (free association, dream interpretation, the symbolic nature of relationship as expressed in transference, etc.) but the purpose was the same: to make unconscious processes available to consciousness where insight and working through are possible. The following quote contains the first published occurrence of the term “the unconscious” in what was to be its psychoanalytic sense:
[Throughout Anna O.’s treatment] her two states of consciousness persisted side by side: the primary one in which she was quite normal psychically, and the secondary one which may well be likened to a dream in view of its wealth of imaginative products and hallucinations, its large gaps of memory and the lack of inhibition and control in its associations. In this secondary state the patient was in a condition of alienation. The fact that the patient’s mental condition was entirely dependent on the intrusion of this secondary state into the normal one seems to throw considerable light on at least one class of hysterical psychosis. Every one of her [trances] afforded evidence that the patient was entirely clear and well ordered in her mind and normal as regards her feeling and volition so long as none of the products of her secondary state was acting as a stimulus “in the unconscious.” The extremely marked psychosis which appeared whenever there was any considerable interval in this unburdening process showed the degree to which those products influenced the psychical events of her ‘normal’ state. It is hard to avoid expressing the situation by saying that the patient was split into two personalities of which one was mentally normal and the other insane. (p. 45).
The main theoretical position adopted by the authors seems, on the surface, a simple one. They hold that, in the normal course of things, if an experience is accompanied by a large amount of ‘affect’, that affect is either ‘discharged’ in a variety of conscious reflex acts or becomes gradually worn away by association with other conscious mental material. In the case of hysterical patients, on the other hand (for reasons which we shall mention in a moment) neither of these things happens. The affect remains in a ‘strangulated’ state, and the memory of the experience to which it is attached is cut off from consciousness. The affective memory is thereafter manifested in hysterical symptoms, which may be regarded as ‘mnemic symbols’ – that is to say as symbols of the suppressed memory. Two principal reasons are suggested to explain the occurrence of this pathological outcome. One is that the original experience took place while the subject was in a particular dissociated state of mind described as ‘hypnoid’; the other is that the experience was one which the subject’s ‘ego’ regarded as ‘incompatible’ with itself and which had therefore to be ‘fended off’. In either case the therapeutic effectiveness of the ‘cathartic’ procedure is explained on the same basis: if the original experience, along with its affect, can be brought into consciousness, the affect is by that very fact discharged or ‘abreacted’, the force that has maintained the symptom ceases to operate, and the symptom itself disappears. (Editor’s Introduction pp. 18-19).
58 Freud, S. (1896). The aetiology of hysteria. In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 3, pp. 191-221). New York: Norton. (Read before the Society for Psychiatry and Neurology, Vienna, April 21, 1896.) See also: Masson, J. (1984). The assault on truth: Freud’s suppression of the seduction theory. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, which includes a reprint of Freud’s paper on hysteria.
If we try…to induce the symptoms of a hysteria to make themselves heard as witnesses to the history of the origin of the illness, we must take our start from Josef Breuer’s momentous discovery: the symptoms of hysteria are determined by certain experiences of the patient’s which have operated in a traumatic fashion and which are being reproduced in his psychical life in the form of mnemic symbols. What we have to do is apply Breuer’s method – or one which is essentially the same – so as to lead the patient’s attention back from his symptom to the scene in which and through which the symptom arose; and, having thus located the scene, we remove the symptom by bringing about, during the reproduction of the traumatic scene, a subsequent correction of the psychical course of events which took place at the time. (Freud’s Etiology of Hysteria reprinted in Masson’s Assault on truth p. 253).
If we subject a fairly large number of symptoms in a great number of subjects to such an analysis, we shall arrive at a knowledge of a correspondingly large number of traumatically operative scenes. It was in these experiences that the efficient causes of hysteria come into action. Hence we may hope to discover from the study of these traumatic scenes what the influences are which produce hysterical symptoms and in what way they do so. (Freud’s Etiology of Hysteria reprinted in Masson’s Assault on truth p. 253).
I put forward the thesis that at the bottom of every case of hysteria there are one or more occurrences of premature sexual experience, occurrences which belong to the earliest years of childhood but which can be reproduced through the work of psychoanalysis in spite of the intervening decades. (Freud’s Etiology of Hysteria reprinted in Masson’s Assault on truth p. 263).
Let us return once again to the last group of objections…We have heard and have acknowledged that there are numerous people who have a very clear recollection of infantile sexual experiences and who nevertheless do not suffer from hysteria. This objection has no weight; but it provides an occasion for making a valuable comment. According to our understanding of the neurosis, people of this kind ought not to be hysterical at all, or at any rate, not hysterical as a result of the scenes which they consciously remember. With our patients, those memories are never conscious; but we cure them of their hysteria by transforming their unconscious memories of the infantile scenes into conscious ones. There is nothing that we could have done or needed to do about the fact that they have had such experiences. From this you will perceive that the matter is not merely one of the existence of the sexual experiences, but that a psychological precondition enters in as well. The scenes must be present as unconscious memories; only so long as, and in so far as, they are unconscious are they able to create and maintain hysterical symptoms. But what decides whether those experiences produce conscious or unconscious memories – whether that is conditioned by the content of the experiences, or by the time at which they occur, or by later influences – that is a fresh problem, which we shall prudently avoid. Let me merely remind you that, as it first conclusion, analysis has arrived at the proposition that hysterical symptoms are derivatives of memories which are operating unconsciously. (Freud’s Etiology of Hysteria reprinted in Masson’s Assault on truth pp. 271-272).
59 Myers, F. (1893). The mechanism of hysteria: The subliminal consciousness, Proceedings of the Society for . Psychical Research, London, 9, 3. (15); See also, Myers, F. (1903). Human personality and its survival of bodily death, London: Longmans, Green & Co.
Now we shall find that all the phenomena of hysteria are reducible to the same general conception. To understand their many puzzles we have to keep our eyes fixed upon just these psychological notions – upon a threshold of ordinary consciousness above which certain perceptions and faculties ought to be, but are not always, maintained, and upon a “hypnotic stratum” or region of the personality to which hypnotic suggestion appeals; and which includes faculty and perception which surpass the [conscious], bit whose operation is capricious and dreamlike, inasmuch as they lie, so to say, in a debatable region between two rules – the known rule of the [conscious] self, adapted to this life’s experience and uses, and the conjectured rule of a fuller and profounder self, rarely reached by any artifice which our present skill suggests. Some of these conscious groupings have got separated from the ordinary stream of consciousness. These may still be unified in the [unconscious], but they need to be unified in the [conscious] also. The normal relation between the [conscious] and the [unconscious] may be disturbed by action of either. (p.43).
The experimental approach to the study of the unconscious, known as parapsychological research, arose at Cambridge University in the 1870’s. Out of these investigations the Society for Psychical Research was founded in 1882 and Frederick Myers played the major role for the first twenty years of the Society. In addition to his work as a parapsychologist he was one of the great systematizers of the notion of the unconscious mind. Ellenberger, H. (1970). The discovery of the unconscious: The history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry, New York: Basic Books. pp. 313-314.
Myers traveled from England to meet Janet after hearing of his research with a remarkable subject that could be hypnotized at a distance. Janet wrote a paper presented in Paris, on November 30, 1885 at the Société de psychologie physiologique under the chairmanship of Charcot. Janet had been careful to state his observations without drawing any conclusions, yet the paper created a sensation, drawing the attention of a number of distinguished visitors (including Charcot, his future mentor). The results of Janet’s research seemed to confirm the existence of the phenomenon of suggestion from a distance yet the results were kept from the public. Janet felt that not enough precautions had been taken to avoid indirect suggestion and rather than move in the direction of parapsychological research, Janet developed a lasting suspicion, deciding instead to restrict himself to the systematic investigation of the elementary phenomena of hypnosis and suggestion. (Ellenberger, pp. 337-338).
60 Prince, M. (1911). The dissociation of personality. New York: Longmans, Green; Prince, M. (1914). The unconscious: The fundamentals of human personality normal and abnormal, New York: Macmillan.
In systematized dissociation there is a cleavage between certain organized systems of experiences and functions and the remainder of the personality. The contracted personality is consequently shorn of much…when the disaggregation of personality is brought about by the force of a conflicting emotion, the resulting hysterical state or dissociated personality may be robbed of certain sensory or motor functions, although these functions are not as far as we can see logically related to the emotion or the ideas coupled with it. Thus a person receives an emotional shock and develops a one-sided anesthesia and paralysis – a very common phenomenon. pp. 504-505.
In short the suppression by dissociation of a specific psychological element – remembrance, perception, sentiment, etc. – not only tends to rob the personality of a whole psychological system in which it is organized but of other faculties, the relation of which to the specifically dissociated element is obscure. It seems as if the dissociation sometimes followed physiological as well as psychological lines. pp. 506-507.
and in a section on subconscious traumatic memory:
When an emotional complex has once been organized by an emotional trauma and more or less dissociated from the personality by the conflicting emotional impulses, it is conserved as a neurogram more or less isolated. The fact of amnesia for the experience is evidence of its isolation in that it cannot be awakened and synthesized with the personal consciousness.” p. 517.
Neurogram precisely characterizes my conception of the form in which a system of brain processes corresponding to thoughts and other mental experiences is recorded and conserved. p. 131.
We have here, then, in the concept of brain residual neurograms the fundamental meaning of the unconscious. The unconscious is the great storehouse of neurograms which are the physiological records of our mental lives. p. 149.
Prince’s work appears to echo Janet’s and, in fact, they were good friends. Morton Prince was also the founder of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology.
61 van der Reijden, Joël (2004-2013). The Institute for the Study of Globalization and Covert Politics.
The Institute for the Study of Globalization and Covert Politics was a project directed by the Dutch researcher Joël van der Reijden that ran from 2004 to 2013 and is archived at http://wikispooks.com. It attempted to analyze the various elites of the western world, and to see how they interact with both each other and various national governments. It compiled a list of 470 important privately-funded non-government institutes and the key persons who form an international “permanent establishment”. Many of these organizations had never been disclosed before. Retrieved December, 2012 http://wikispooks.com/ISGP/about.htm
Bryant, N. (2009). The Franklin scandal: A story of powerbrokers child abuse & betrayal. Waterville, Oregon: Trine Day; Brewton, P. (1992).
The Mafia, CIA & George Bush: Corruption, greed and abuse of power in the nation’s highest office. New York: S.P.I., a division of Shapolsky publishers.
62 Sklar, D. (1989). The Nazis and the occult. Dorset Press.Meiers, M. (1989). Was Jonestown a CIA medical experiment?: A review of the evidence (Studies in American religion). New York: E. Mellen Press;
Constantine, A. (1995). Psychic dictatorship in the U.S.A.. Portland, Oregon: Feral House:
Testimony before the 1977 Church Committee’s probe of the CIA hinted that, as of 1963, the scientific squalor of the CIA’s mind-control regimen, code-named MKULTRA, had abandoned military and academic laboratories, fearing exposure, and mushroomed in cities across the country. Confirmation arrived in 1980 when Joseph Holsinger, an aide to late Congressman Leo Ryan (who was murdered by a death squad at Jonestown) exposed the formation of eccentric religious cults by the CIA. Holsinger made the allegation at a colloquium of psychologists in San Francisco on “Psychosocial Implications of Jonestown Phenomenon.” Holsinger maintained that a CIA rear-support base had been in collusion with Jones to perform medical and mind control experiments at the People’s Temple.
The Jonestown experiment was conceived by Dr. Layton, staffed by Dr. Layton and financed by Dr. Layton. [Dr. Lawrence Laird Layton was a professor at the University of California at Berkeley, worked as a chemist for the Manhattan Project and served as head of the Army’s chemical warfare research division in the early 1950’s; his son, Larry Layton, led the death squad that murdered Congressman Leo Ryan, who’d arrived at Guyana to investigate the cult.] It was as much his project as Jim Jones, though it was essential for him to remain in the background for security reasons. The African-American cult had at its core a Caucasian inner-council, composed of Dr. Layton’s family and in-laws. (Constantine p. 56)
63 Annas, G. (1998). Some choice: Law, medicine, and the market. New York: Oxford. See Chapter 13: Our Most Important Product. [a fictionalized account of what many survivors report] Digital version Retrieved November, 2012 from http://books.google.com/books?id=rUB1IBBEjWsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22george+annas%22+%22our+most+important+product%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8WOqUPurBujriwLOk4HQBA&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22george%20annas%22%20%22our%20most%20important%20product%22&f=false
64 Calloni, S. The horror archives of Operation Condor. Covert Action Quarterly. Fall 1994. No. 50.
The skeletons in the closets of the right-wing dictators who ruled Latin America in the 1970’s are literally real. When massive secret police archives were discovered in Paraguay, evidence of an internationally coordinated campaign of terror spilled out. Now, the U.S., which supported the dictators, may be aiding those who are trying to purge the documentary record of some 50,000 people killed, 30,000 disappeared, and 400,000 imprisoned. p. 7.
65 Schmitt, E. & Shanker, T. (2004, March 30). Big Pay Luring Military’s Elite to Private Jobs. New York Times, Retrieved November, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/30/us/big-pay-luring-military-s-elite-to-private-jobs.html
66 Webb, Gary (1999). Dark alliance: The CIA, the Contras and the crack cocaine explosion. Seven Stories Press. McCoy, A. (1991). The politics of heroin: CIA complicity in the global drug trade. New York: Lawrence Hill. [Revised and expanded edition of The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia. (1972)]
67 Wayne, L. (2002, October 13). America’s For-Profit Secret Army. New York Times, Retrieved November, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/13/business/america-s-for-profit-secret-army.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
68 Human Rights Watch (2002 November). Hopes betrayed: Trafficking of women and girls to Bosnia and Herzegovina for forced prostitution. Vol. 14, No. 9 (D) pp. 63-64. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://books.google.com/books?id=KYLiRbLlMwoC&lpg=PA63&dq=%22He%20is%20the%20operator%20of%20a%20nightclub%20by%20the%20name%20of%20Harley%27s%22&pg=PA63#v=onepage&q&f=false
69 Bain, D. (1976). The control of Candy Jones. Chicago: Playboy Press.
One of the earliest examples of a mind controlled spy was Candy Jones. She was a multiple personality and Bain’s account of her life came only three years after Schreiber wrote her famous book on Sybil in 1973, introducing the idea of multiple personality to the general public. Candy Jone’s story involved being used as a courier for security agencies. Her handler in the book was disguised as a “Dr. Marshall Burger” later revealed as Dr. William Kroger with an interesting history of his own:
After l’Affair Jones, Kroger transferred his base of operations to UCLA – specifically to Neuropsychiatric Institute run by Dr. Louis Joylon West, an MKULTRA veteran. There he wrote Hypnosis and Behavior Modification, with a preface by Martin Orne (another MKULTRA veteran) and H. J. Eysenck (still another MKULTRA veteran). The finale of this opus contains chilling hints of the possibilities inherent in combining hypnosis with ESB [Electronic Stimulation of the Brain] implants, and conditioning. [In Cannon, M. (1990). The controllers: Mind control and project MKULTRA, modern myth, mass manipulation, and a new hypothesis of “Alien” abductions. Santa Barbara: Prevailing Winds Research. pp. 36-37.]
Retrieved November, 2012 from http://web.archive.org/web/19980518082816/http://earthops.org/controllers.html
70 Keyes, D. (1981). The minds of Billy Milligan. New York: Random House.
71 Loftus, John & Aarons, Mark (1994). The secret war against the Jews: How Western espionage betrayed the Jewish people. St. Martins Press.
One third of modern history is still classified [referring to the national security vaults] [An] intelligence officer turned art teacher…displayed a color slide of an abstract sculpture. The piece was over six feet tall, of metal branches all intertwined…It was, to all appearances, a random column of ugliness. Hardly the model for a book. “Don’t look at the sculpture itself,” our friend advised. “look at the holes.” Inside the twisted sculpture was an orderly pattern of smooth ovals, arranged in perfect balance, making sense of the whole. p. 2
Known history is like the visible surface of the sculpture, a series of harsh twisted, seemingly unconnected branches. The hidden patterns of history, the covert sides, are more orderly and rational, but can be seen and understood only if you are told where to look. The holes in history are what makes sense of the thing; the hidden motives, secret agendas, classified purposes. p. 12
Loftus appears to embody his own metaphor. He once held some of the highest security clearances in the U.S. and NATO. He has done excellent work reporting on certain aspects of covert activities especially regarding the Justice Department’s recruitment and protection of Nazis after WWII. But this exposure consistently hides or minimizes other agencies’ roles in these activities, especially the CIA. Loftus appears to be part of the great game himself where nothing is ever as it appears to be.
Joël van der Reijden points out:
Turns out, Loftus has been founding president of the Intelligence Summit, a rather notorious anti-Arab propaganda outfit with ties to the CIA, military, Mossad and British intelligence. Even James Woolsey and John Deutch, two former CIA directors, were on the board until the Summit’s main financier was reported to have ties to the Russian mob. van der Reijden, Joël (2004-2013). The Institute for the Study of Globalization and Covert Politics. Retrieved December, 2012 from: http://wikispooks.com/ISGP/intro.htm
Rutz, C. (2001). A nation betrayed: The chilling true story of secret cold war experiments performed on our children and other innocent people. Grass Lake, Michigan: Fidelity Publishing; Hersha, C. & Hersha, L. (2001). Secret weapons: Two sisters’ terrifying true story of sex, spies, and sabotage. Far Hills, New Jersey: New Horizon Press.
72 Seldes, G. (1943). Facts and Fascism. New York: In Fact, Inc.; Riess, C. (1944). The Nazis go underground. New York: Doubleday, Doran and Co.; Higham, C. (1983). Trading with the enemy: An expose of the Nazi-American money plot, 1933-1949. Delacorte Press.
73 Hunt, L. (1991). Secret agenda: The United States Government, Nazi scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945-1990. New York: St. Martin’s Press; Simpson, C. (1988). Blowback: The first full account of America’s recruitment of Nazis, and its disastrous effect on our domestic and foreign policy. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson; Bower, T. (1987). The Paperclip conspiracy: The hunt for Nazi scientists. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
74 Simpson, C. (1988). Blowback: The first full account of America’s recruitment of Nazis, and its disastrous effect on our domestic and foreign policy. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 44.
75 Higham, C. (1983). Trading with the enemy: An expose of the Nazi-American money plot, 1933-1949. Delacorte Press; Bower, T. (1982). The pledge betrayed: American and Britain and the denazification of post-war Germany. New York: Doubleday; Pool, J. & Pool, S. (1978). Who financed Hitler: The secret funding of Hitler’s rise to power 1919-1933. New York: Dial Press; Martin, James Stewart [former Chief of the Decartelization Branch of Military Government in Germany] (1950). All honorable men: The story of the men on both sides of the Atlantic who successfully thwarted plans to dismantle the Nazi cartel system. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
James Stewart Martin’s book is invaluable but difficult to find. Try a search and, if lucky, someone may have posted a PDF on their blog. It is as relevant today as the day it was written in terms of understanding economic realities. From the bookflaps:
It is the first complete account of how the giant German industrial and financial combines subsidized Hitler and the Nazi military machine on the one hand, and on the other hand conspired to weaken Europe and America through favorable cartel agreements, in preparation for world conquest. It is the first complete inside story of how our postwar program to end the menace of the German cartels was frustrated and finally stopped by American and other allied power’s industrial and financial interests whose paramount concern was “business as usual.”
It names all the major individuals and all the major firms involved. It describes incidents of how we actually aided the enemy in wartime under the provisions of ordinary commercial agreements. And it is written from firsthand experience by the man who, as Chief of the Decartelization Branch of our Military Government, was not allowed to complete the mission set by President Roosevelt.
“Defeat of the Nazi armies will have to be followed by eradication of the weapons of economic warfare,” wrote President Roosevelt in 1944. It was plain that the great German cartels would have to be broken up before we could really win the peace.
76 Chertok, B. (2005). Rockets and people: Volume 1. US National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
77 Hunt, L. (1991). Secret agenda: The United States Government, Nazi scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945-1990. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Chapter 4 “A Hell Called Dora.”
78 Walt Disney’s Wonderful World of Color. Season 1, Episode 20. (March 5, 1955). Man in Space. Retrieved March, 2013 from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZWJrvT9sTPk&playnext=1&list=PL7A3BD57D62A24D5A&feature=results_video
80 Brown, K. (2013). Plutopia: Nuclear families, atomic cities, and the great Soviet and American plutonium disasters. Oxford University Press.
A chilling account that would make any reader question the continuing propaganda regarding the safety of nuclear fission.
81 Schlosser, E. (2001). Fast food nation. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
82 Piszkiewicz, D. (2007). The Nazi racketeers: Dreams of Space and Crimes of War. Stackpole books. p. 225.
83 Hunt, L. (1991). Secret agenda: The United States Government, Nazi scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945-1990. New York: St. Martin’s Press. pp.68-69.
84 Kandell, J. (June 14, 2007). Kurt Waldheim dies at 88; ex-UN chief hid Nazi past. New York Times. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/14/world/europe/14iht-waldheim.3.6141106.html
85 Lichtblau, E. (November 13, 2010). Nazis were given “Safe Haven” in U.S., report says. New York Times. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/14/us/14nazis.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
86 Loftus, J. (2010). America’s Nazi secret; An insiders history of how the United States Department of Justice obstructed Congress. Trine Day LLC. From the unnumbered Author’s note to the second printing: “I have read the secret files about the New York Times…the last I heard, Lieutenant Hoffman is retired in Switzerland, but still writes an occasional article for the Times’ Travel section.”…“The Times has never reported that its foreign bureaus were used to support the assassination of President Allende in Chile, the overthrow of the Mossadegh democracy in Iran, and the hiring of former Nazi intelligence officers during the Cold War.”
87 Loftus, J. (2010). America’s Nazi secret; An insiders history of how the United States Department of Justice obstructed Congress. Trine Day LLC. From the back cover book notes:
The Nuremburg trials were fixed. The US Justice Department did it. Some of America’s most influential families funded Hitler. Ambitious Lawyers in Washington covered it up under a cloak of national security. The Justice Department brought Nazis into America by the thousands to be trained as cold war spies.
The Attorney General personally sponsored some of the worst war criminals for immigration to the USA, including the chief of the Ukrainian security service, Mykola Lebed. His troops murdered tens of thousands of Poles, Ukrainians and Jews, including Simon Wiesenthal’s mother.
In 1985, the Justice Department pawned this Ukrainian mass murderer off to Congress as an innocent leader of the Anti-Nazi resistance. Almost everything the Justice Department has ever told Congress about Nazis in America has been a conscious and deliberate lie. The hunt for Nazi war criminals has been a mere public relations effort to placate Jews and WWII veterans.
88 Loftus, J. (2010). America’s Nazi secret; An insiders history of how the United States Department of Justice obstructed Congress. Trine Day LLC.:
When Eisenhower was elected, one of the Robber Baron’s lawyers, Allen Dulles, former head of the OPC, became head of the CIA. His brother, John Foster Dulles, became Eisenhower’s Secretary of State. Between them the trickle of Nazi immigration to America became a flood. p. 15.
American charities such as the World Church Service in which John Foster Dulles had a leadership role. p 184.
89 Higham, C. (1984). Trading with the enemy: the Nazi-American money plot 1933-1949. Dell Publishing. See chapter 3, “The secrets of Standard Oil,” pages 32-62; Collier, P. and Horowitz, D. (1976). The Rockefellers: An American dynasty. Holt, Rinehart & Winston:
During the war, Rockefeller foreshadowed the anticommunist policies of the Cold War by cozying up to dictatorial regimes in Latin America. Nicolo Tucci, head of the State Department’s Bureau of Latin American Research, resigned because of this, asking Secretary of State Cordell Hull to abolish his bureau. “My bureau was supposed to undo the Nazi and fascist propaganda in South America and Rockefeller was inviting the worst fascists and Nazis to Washington.” p. 236
90 Saunders, F. S. (1999). Who paid the piper? The CIA and the cultural cold war. Granta Books. p. 144.
91 (December 1, 2012). A Scientist’s Nazi-Era Past Haunts Prestigious Space Prize. Wall Street Journal.
92 Riess, Curt (1944). The Nazis go underground. Doubleday, Doran and Co.; Bower, T. (1982). The pledge betrayed: America and Britain and the denazification of postwar Germany. Doubleday & Company.
93 Bower, T. (1998). Nazi gold: The full story of the fifty-year Swiss-Nazi conspiracy to steal billions from Europe’s Jews and Holocaust Survivors. Harper Perennial; Ziegler, J. (1998). The Swiss, the gold and the dead: How Swiss bankers helped finance the Nazi War Machine. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
94 Aarons, M., Loftus, J. (1998). Unholy trinity: The Vatican, the Nazis, and the Swiss banks. St. Martin’s Griffin; Revised edition.
95 Manning, P. (1980). Martin Bormann: Nazi in exile. Lyle Stewart, Inc. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://spitfirelist.com/books/martin-bormann-nazi-in-exile/
In addition to the enormous power deriving from its consummate economic clout, the Bormann group has wielded tremendous global influence through its intelligence and enforcement network. Administered by SS general Heinrich Mueller, the wartime head of the Gestapo, the Bormann group’s intelligence and security network was composed of some of the toughest, most capable veterans of the SS. In addition, the Bormann organization and Mueller’s security outfit have commanded the loyalty of the political, intelligence and military elements requisitioned by the Allies after the war. In that regard, the Bormann/Mueller operation could draw on the loyalties of the Reinhard Gehlen spy outfit that handled the CIA’s intelligence on the former Soviet Union and which ultimately became the intelligence service of the Federal Republic of Germany. In addition, Bormann and Mueller were the political masters of the numerous scientists recruited by the U.S. and other nations for their expertise during the Cold War.
96 Dunstan, S. & Williams, G. (2011). Grey Wolf: The escape of Adolf Hitler. Sterling Publishing.
97 McCoy, A. (2012). Torture and impunity: the U.S. doctrine of coercive interrogation. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 56.
98 (July, 1935). Exchange of patents speed home television. Popular Mechanics. 24-25; Klof, M. (Director) (2008). Television under the swastika. [Film on DVD, 54 minutes]. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-yCsTHLxXs
99 Horowitz, M. (1973). Phase oriented treatment of stress response syndromes. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 27, 506-515.
Largely derived from studies of acute trauma and war veterans, contemporary trauma treatment began in the 1970s. It was essentially Janet’s phase-oriented treatment model rediscovered by Horowitz. Horowitz’s elaboration of a “stress response syndrome”, characterized by a failure to process either the emotional or cognitive information of a traumatic event, was the foundation for the modern definition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
100 Bryant, N. (2009). The Franklin scandal: A story of powerbrokers, child abuse & betrayal. Walterville, Oregon: Trine Day. Chapter Five focuses on Washington D. C. and the use of children to blackmail politicians. p. 291-326.
101 van der Reijden, Joël (2004-2013). The Institute for the Study of Globalization and Covert Politics.
The Institute for the Study of Globalization and Covert Politics was a project directed by the Dutch researcher Joël van der Reijden that ran from 2004 to 2013 and is archived at http://wikispooks.com. It attempted to analyze the various elites of the western world, and to see how they interact with both each other and various national governments. It compiled a list of 470 important privately-funded non-government institutes and the key persons who form an international “permanent establishment”. Many of these organizations had never been disclosed before. Retrieved December, 2012 http://wikispooks.com/ISGP/about.htm
102 Ross, C. (April 18, 1996). The CIA and military mind control research: Building the Manchurian Candidate. Lecture given at the Ninth Annual Western Clinical Conference on Trauma and Dissociation in Costa Mesa, CA.
After reviewing FOI documents and naming researchers linked to covert research Ross presented a list of names. Of those people, the following are also members of the FMFS advisory board:
Martin Orne, M.D., Ph.D. (Deceased) [Though not listed in the FOI documents his wife Emily Carota Orne is also on the board of the FMSF and is co-director of the Unit for Experimental Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvainia along with David Dinges Ph.D.]
Richard Ofshe, Ph.D.. Professor Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley (Sociology)
Louis Jolyon West, M.D. (Deceased) Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the FMS Foundation as reported in the FMS Foundation Newsletter, 4(8) 1995, though no longer mentioned on FMSF website while other deceased members are. Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California in Los Angeles and director of its Neuropsychiatric Institute. He received Top Secret clearance from the CIA as the contractor on MKULTRA Subproject 43; CIA documents show that grants were given to Louis Jolyon West for studies on, “Psychophysiological Studies of Hypnosis and Suggestibility” and “Studies of Dissociative States”. [Ross, C. (2000). Bluebird: Deliberate creation of multiple personality by psychiatrists. Manitou Communications]. Among his many activities:
West attempted to set up a covert research center using an abandoned Nike missile site in the 1960s. “If the services of Major Louis J. West, USAF (MC), a trained hypnotist, can be obtained, and another man well grounded in conventional psychological interrogation and polygraph techniques, and the services of Lt. Col. [deleted], a well-balanced interrogation research center could be established in an especially selected location.” [Nike missile base in the Santa Monica Mountains]. One of the many projects: “implanting tiny electrodes deep within the brain” [Krawczyk, G. (December/January 1993). Mind control: Techniques and tactics of the New World Order. Nexus Magazine.]
West used disguised Agency grants channeled through two cutouts in the 50s: the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation and the Geschickter Fund for Medical Research. These were LSD projects. [Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control. New York: Norton. 63.]
E. R. Hilgard, Ph.D., (Psychology) Hypnosis researcher at Stanford University (Deceased) was one of the more interesting members of the FMSF. He was 88 years old when he joined the board. He was a member of the DSM IV Dissociative Disorders Committee, and therefore well aware of the dynamics of dissociation and retrieved memory. His book, Divided Consciousness: Multiple Controls in Human Thought and Action is an excellent text summarizing a body of work that, in many cases, directly contradicts FMSF propaganda. It is of interest that in his lengthy biography on the FMSF website the book is not mentioned. He may have lent his name and prestige without understanding the full context of the foundation or he may have been involved in covert work. It is difficult to account for his membership. His publicly available academic work is beyond reproach and shows sophisticated understanding of memory processes completely in contradiction to the simple positions of the FMSF.
Margaret Singer, Ph.D., (Clinical Psychologist) adjunct professor at the University of California at Berkeley (Deceased). Along with West, she is no longer listed on the FMSF website though other deceased members continue to be.
Singer was the chair of an APA Task Force, that included Louis Jolyon West, titled Deceptive and Indirect Techniques of Persuasion and Control (DIMPAC). Their report was completed in 1986. The APA Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility rejected the report in 1987 saying “the brainwashing theory espoused lacks the scientific rigor and evenhanded critical approach necessary for APA imprimatur.” As a result Singer and her associate, Richard Ofshe were prevented from providing expert testimony in courts. They sued the APA for defamation in 1992, losing the case in 1994.
Paul McHugh, M.D., (Chairman of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins), James Whitehorn, the former Chairman of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins was an advisor with the Human Ecology Foundation and had Top Secret Clearance.
Brown, D., Frischholz, E., & Scheflin, A. (1999). Iatrogenic Dissociative Identity Disorder: An evaluation of the scientific evidence. The Journal of Psychiatry and Law. 27 (3-4) 549–637.
The problem with McHugh’s publications on MPD/DID, like those of Mersky, is that they are mere speculation. From deposition testimony in several cases, McHugh has made it clear that other than an occasional consultation, he has very little actual clinical experience with the ongoing treatment of MPD/DID patients and is generally unfamiliar with both the clinical features of MPD/DID and with what usually occurs in their treatment. Thus McHugh’s opinion is informed neither by actual in-depth clinical experience with contemporary MPD/DID patients nor by any scientific research on MPD.
Ross, C. (2006). The CIA doctors: Human rights violations by American psychiatrists. Richardson, Texas: Manitou Communications.
Dr. McHugh became the Henery Phipps Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1975, a position he holds up to the present. The first two academic conferences held by the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF) took place in Baltimore and were co-sponsored by the Department of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins. Dr. McHugh was a course director at the second meeting. p. 131.
Dr. McHugh and other FMSF Advisory Board members scoff at clinical multiple personality disorder…Dr. McHugh is firmly entrenched in the network of mind control doctors that created Manchurian Candidates. He is a productive academic, and Chairman of a major academic Department of Psychiatry, not a fool, yet he falls short of the most elementary scholarly standards in his attack on multiple personality disorder. Why? What is really going on here? p. 135.
Harold Lief, M.D., Martin Orne’s colleague at University of Pennsylvania.
The following members of the FMSF advisory board did not show up in Ross’s FOI documents but are included here because their memberships also show links to possible covert research or appear compromised:
Michael Persinger, Ph.D., (Cognitive Neuroscience) “[Michael] Persinger was employed by the US national security establishment to develop behavior-modifying electromagnetic weapons under project “Sleeping Beauty”. He came to the attention of the defense industry after he published a paper entitled “Possible cardiac driving by an external rotating magnetic field” in 1973. Captain Paul Tyler, the Director of the US Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, wrote in 1986 of a technique employed by the national security establishment to disrupt “the electrical signal in cardiac muscle”, to produce “complete asystole with a resultant fatal outcome”. [Krawczyk, G. (December 17, 1994). Mind Control. New Scientist. p. 50.]
In 1974 Persinger proposed that extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves may be able to carry telepathic and clairvoyant information. [Heath, P. (2011) Mind-Matter interaction: A review of historical reports, theory and research, McFarland Press. p. 156.]
Persinger also researched remote viewing. Ingo Swan, if you recall, was also used in remote viewing research at Stanford Research Institute. [Persinger, M; Roll, W; Tiller, S; Koren, S; Cook, C (2002). Remote viewing with the artist Ingo Swan: neuropsychological profile, electroencephalographic correlates, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and possible mechanisms. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 94 (3) 927–949.]
Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D., (Cognitive Psychology, University of California at Irvine) Loftus has no clinical experience and absolutely no qualifications as an authority on traumatic memory. She serves as expert witness in cases where the validity of memory is to be challenged based on questionable research that has more to do with influence and persuasion in non-traumatic memory than dissociated memory resulting from trauma. Her most high-profile case ending in disaster: “With withering and methodical dispatch, White House nemesis and prosecutor Patrick J. Fitzgerald yesterday sliced up the first person called to the stand on behalf of the vice president’s former chief of staff…Fitzgerald’s target in the witness box was Elizabeth F. Loftus, a professor of criminology and psychology at the University of California at Irvine…when Fitzgerald got his chance to cross-examine Loftus about her findings, he had her stuttering to explain her own writings and backpedaling from her earlier assertions. Citing several of her publications, footnotes and the work of her peers, Fitzgerald got Loftus to acknowledge that the methodology she had used at times in her long academic career was not that scientific, that her conclusions about memory were conflicting, and that she had exaggerated a figure and a statement from her survey of D.C. jurors that favored the defense.” [Leonnig, C. (October, 27, 2006). In the Libby case, a grilling to remember. Washington Post. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/26/AR2006102601612.html ]
Pamela & Peter Freyd, (Husband and Wife, founding executive directors of the FMSF) Peter Freyd resigned from the foundation when it was learned that his adult daughter had disclosed his incest of her. At one level, the foundation can be seen as a family’s retaliation against their daughter’s “false memory”. One of the remarkable aspects of the media campaign was the extent to which the parent’s voices were amplified and their adult daughter’s voice was silenced. If the issue was the validity of memory, their daughter – Jennifer Freyd, PhD. – might have been expected to have something to contribute: Jennifer Freyd holds a Doctorate in Psychology specializing in memory. [Freyd, J. (1994). Betrayal trauma: Traumatic amnesia as an adaptive response to childhood abuse. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 307-309; Freyd, J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.]
Peter Freyd acknowledged receiving funding from curious sources:
On December 11, 1996, in [an internet posting] Dr. Peter Freyd, husband of the Executive Director of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, wrote:
Since we all want to be open about any money we might have received from military-related sources, let me confess; I too must go on record. Starting in 1988, I’ve been getting a lot of money from the U.S. Office of Naval Research. [Ross, C. (2000). Bluebird: Deliberate creation of multiple personality by psychiatrists. Richardson, Texas: Manitou Communications. p. 154; Since reissued as: Ross, C. (2006). The CIA doctors: Human rights violations by American psychiatrists. Richardson, Texas: Manitou Communications.]
Ralph Underwager, Ph.D. and Lutheran Minister & Hollida Wakefield, M.A. (Husband and Wife that publish, Issues in Child Abuse Allegations, written by and for child abuse skeptics. Ralph was a founding member of the FMSF but was forced to resign in 1993 when he became an embarrassment to the Foundation. He gave an interview (June 1991) to Paidika: The Journal of Paedophilia (1987–1995), a journal published by the Stichting Paidika Foundation whose purpose was to promote pedophilia:
Paidika: Is choosing paedophilia for you a responsible choice for individuals?
Ralph Underwager: Certainly it is responsible. What I have been struck by as I have come to know more about and understand people who choose paedophilia is that they let themselves be too much defined by other people. That is usually an essentially negative definition. Paedophiles spend a lot of time and energy defending their choice. I don’t think that a paedophile needs to do that. Paedophiles can boldly and courageously affirm what they choose. They can say that what they want is to find the best way to love. I am also a theologian and as a theologian, I believe it is God’s will that there be closeness and intimacy, unity of the flesh, between people. A paedophile can say: “This closeness is possible for me within the choices that I’ve made.
103 Orne, Martin (1966). On the mechanisms of posthypnotic amnesia. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. (14) 121-134.; Cannon, M. (1990). The controllers: Mind control and project MKULTRA, modern myth, mass manipulation, and a new hypothesis of “Alien” abductions. Santa Barbara: Prevailing Winds Research. p. 31. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://web.archive.org/web/19980518082816/http://earthops.org/controllers.html
104 U.S. House Select Committee on Intelligence Report. (Pike Committee)
U.S. Intelligence Agencies and Activities. 94th Cong., 1st session, 1975, 2nd session, 1976
U.S. Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. (Church Committee)
Intelligence Activities: Senate Resolution 21. 94th Cong., 1 session, 1975.
U.S. Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities.
Final Reports. 94th Cong., 2nd session, 1976.
105 Cannon, M. (1990). The controllers: Mind control and project MKULTRA, modern myth, mass manipulation, and a new hypothesis of “Alien” abductions. Santa Barbara: Prevailing Winds Research. p. 40. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://web.archive.org/web/19980518082816/http://earthops.org/controllers.html
The hypothesis of the book as stated on page 3 is a very good summation of the covert research that came to light during Watergate:
Substantial evidence exists linking members of this country’s intelligence community (including the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Office of Naval Intelligence) with the esoteric technology of mind-control. For decades, “spy-chiatrists” working behind the scenes – on college campuses, in CIA-sponsored institutes, and in prisons have experimented with the erasure of memory, hypnotic resistance to torture, truth serums, post-hypnotic suggestion, rapid induction of hypnosis, electronic stimulation of the brain, non-ionizing radiation, microwave induction of intracerebral “voices,” and a host of even more disturbing technologies. Some of the projects exploring these areas were ARTICHOKE, BLUEBIRD, PANDORA, MKDELTA, MKSEARCH, and the infamous MKULTRA.
I have read nearly every available book on these projects, as well as the relevant congressional testimony. I have also spent much time in university libraries researching relevant articles, contacting other researchers (who have graciously allowed me access to their files), and conducting interviews. Moreover, I traveled to Washington DC to review the files John Marks compiled when he wrote The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. These files include some 20,000 pages of CIA and Defense Department documents, interviews, scientific articles, letters, etc. The views presented here are the result of extensive and ongoing research.
As a result of this research, I have come to the following conclusions:
1) Although misleading (and occasionally perjured) testimony before Congress indicated that the CIA’s “brainwashing” efforts met with little success, striking advances were, in fact, made in this field. As CIA veteran Miles Copeland once admitted to a reporter [Eringer, R. (1985). Secret agent man. Rolling Stone Magazine] “The congressional subcommittee which went into this sort of thing got only the barest glimpse.”
2) Clandestine research into thought manipulation has not stopped, despite CIA protestations that it no longer sponsors such studies. Victor Marchetti, 14-year veteran of the CIA and author of the expose, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, confirmed in a 1977 interview that the mind-control research continues, and that CIA claims to the contrary are a “cover story.”
3) The Central Intelligence Agency was not the only government agency involved in this research. Indeed, many branches of our government took part in these studies – including NASA, the Atomic Energy Commission, as well as all branches of the Defense Department.
To these conclusions, I would append the following – not as firmly established historical fact, but as a working hypothesis and grounds for investigation:
4) The “UFO abduction” phenomenon might be a continuation of clandestine mind control operations.
106 Rae, S. (March 20, 1994). UFOs land at Harvard: John Mack’s abductees. New York Times Magazine. pp. 33
107 Taff, Barry . (1987). Paranormal phenomena and UFOs. UFO Magazine. (2) 4.
108 Delgado, J. (1969). Physical control of the mind: Toward a psychocivilized society. New York: Harper & Row. Much of Delgado’s research was funded by the Office of Naval Intelligence:
Dr. José Delgado describes his pioneer work in implanting electrodes in the brains of cats, monkeys, and men. He shows how, by electrical stimulation of specific cerebral structures, movements can be induced by radio command, hostility may appear or disappear, social hierarchy can be modified, sexual behavior may be changed, and memory, emotions, and thinking processes may be influenced by remote control. Direct nonsensory communication between brains and computers has already been accomplished. (from liner notes)
Ross, C. (2006). The C.I.A. doctors: Human rights violations by American psychiatrists. Manitou Communications.
In the publication resulting from MKULTRA Subproject 62, tittled, “Effects of radio-frequency energy on primate cerebral activity,” Baldwin, Bach and Lewis (1959) thank the Naval Research Laboratory and Rome Air Force Base for supplying equipment used to generate the radio waves. p. 103.
Li and Baldwin (1961) described a technique for implanting electrodes in the human brain; at that point in time they had implanted electrodes in the brains of 30 people over a five-year period. p. 103.
109 Dittrich, L., (February 13, 2013). All the President’s Neuroscientists. Esquire.com. Retrieved February 2013 from: http://www.esquire.com/the-side/feature/obama-brain-control-map
President Obama’s proposed Brain Activity Map Project could lead to cures for Alzheimer’s, autism, and schizophrenia. But members of Congress should read the fine print when the $3 billion proposal hits their desks next month – because the project might also provide the first viable means of remotely controlling the human mind.
111 Crossfield, P. (2010, March 29). Pesticide lobbyist gets posted as chief agricultural negotiator. Civileats.com. Retrieved November, 2012 from http://civileats.com/2010/03/29/pesticide-lobbyist-gets-posted-as-chief-agricultural-negotiator/
112 Sisario, B. (December 9, 2012). In Beyoncé deal, Pepsi focuses on Collaboration. New York Times. B4. Retreived December, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/business/media/in-beyonce-deal-pepsi-focuses-on-collaboration.html?pagewanted=1&_r=2
113 Trueman, K. (December 17, 2012). Beyoncé’s bubbly branding falls flat. Retrieved December 2012 from: http://civileats.com/2012/12/17/lets-ask-marion-does-beyonce-have-a-duty-to-use-her-booty-better/